Saturday, August 31, 2019
There are many stages of love shown by Romeo in this play. At first he seems in pain but as the play goes on, he gradually realises his true love and starts to get happier. As I show in this essay Romeo adores Juliet and likens her to many things. Juliet returns this love as well, showing how happy they are in each other. In Act 1 Scene 1, Romeo is featured throughout, in his Ã¢â¬Å"pain of love.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare describes many symptoms of how he is affected. It is shown as being painful and affecting him badly. On line 149 Montague Ã¢â¬â RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s father Ã¢â¬â says that Romeo is Ã¢â¬Å"the bud bit by the envious wormÃ¢â¬ as if to say he has a bug inside him, slowing down his will do normal things by chewing away at his soul represented by a bud of a flower. At this point (Line 149), Montague and Benvolio (RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin) are still unsure as to what is causing his sadness by saying Ã¢â¬Å"We would as willingly give cure as knowÃ¢â¬ (Line 154), meaning that they want to get him out of his sadness as well as know what is causing it. This is a statement backing-up what he earlier said on Line 136, when Montague says Ã¢â¬Å"And private in his chamber pens himselfÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â He stays in his bedroom and locks the door. This makes Romeo feel wretched. By locking himself in his room doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help either, as this makes him feel worse. Another significant feature is the frequent references to life and death. For instance Romeo says, on line 200, Ã¢â¬Å"A sick man makes his willÃ¢â¬ to the end of line 202, being ill is mentioned at least twice. He says a Ã¢â¬Å"sick man,Ã¢â¬ which shows he is, in a sense, that he is not himself because he loves someone. Another point is that he says on line 187 Ã¢â¬Å"Doth add more grief.Ã¢â¬ The key word is grief, which is usually used with sorrow feelings and death. Something that appears briefly in one speech is the use of some oxymorons. They can be found in RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s lines 173 Ã¢â¬â 180. A good example is Ã¢â¬Å"O heavy lightness.Ã¢â¬ This, if used in real context would not make sense as it a contradictory statement. This shows RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s confusing as he is finding it hard that he cannot get the woman he wants and is frustrated with himself. There are further uses of oxymorons later in the play. In Act 3, Scene 2 around lines 75, there are several oxymorons, examples are Ã¢â¬Å"beautiful tyrantÃ¢â¬ (Line 75) and Ã¢â¬Å"dove-feathered ravenÃ¢â¬ (Line 76). These are good examples as they show complete opposites and demonstrate what Juliet was feeling as she is torn between feeling for Romeo whilst feeling angry at him because of Tybalt. This shows some of the feelings people have to go through when experiencing love as they have to have important feelings. Images of problems of love are also picked up on. In RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s speech around line 190, he says Ã¢â¬Å"Love is a smoke made with the fume of sighs.Ã¢â¬ This is saying that love is something that will poison you as it ends up with sighs. Shakespeare is making Romeo get out of his state of love and into his normal self. Romeo even says Ã¢â¬Å"I have lost myself.Ã¢â¬ He knows this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like him and needs to snap out of it but Shakespeare cleverly gets Benvolio involved, so Romeo is forced to tell more, making it even harder for Romeo breakout of his frame of mind. Lastly Romeo and Benvolio mention love and blindness (and the eye) together. In Act 1 Scene 2, Benvolio says Ã¢â¬Å"Take thou some new infection to the eye.Ã¢â¬ This is saying that Benvolio wants Romeo to look at other women to stop him thinking about the one, who has been keeping him secluded. This line could also mean that Benvolio thinks Romeo has been blind in terms of looking at other women and that Ã¢â¬Å"a new infectionÃ¢â¬ i.e. an infection means an illness that stops you from seeing, so love is a illness for Romeo. From here could be a turning point in two ways for Romeo. He could start being himself again or looking at other women could make him feel worse as he was in Act 1, Scene 1. Romeo would not want this because he may find it harder to get out of his miserable state a second time round. Also the audience may get impatient as they want to see Romeo progress, not rewind into his former conditions. We now start to see Romeo open up as he sees Juliet. This is now the beginning of him becoming happier. This is also the first time the audience see Juliet, in the eyes of Romeo, so is a crucial part of the play. When Romeo firsts sees Juliet, he is truly amazed, and this is shown clearly. In Act 1, Scene 5, Romeo likens her to a Ã¢â¬Å"rich jewel in an EthiopÃ¢â¬â¢s earÃ¢â¬ (Line 46). This is effective because it gives the audience an image of jewel, which is prominent in the first place, but to be an EthiopianÃ¢â¬â¢s ear, makes it seem all the brighter. This shows that Juliet is already precious, and stood out to him immediately. Another idea to back this up is the use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"torchesÃ¢â¬ shortly afterwards. This could also be interpreted as standing out from the other people. I think could also mean that she is his light. This shows contrast from earlier when it was dark to him. Religion is also used as a theme. On line 94, Romeo says Ã¢â¬Å"This holy shrine,Ã¢â¬ which could show that Romeo sees her now as his religion, or his light, as I said in the previous paragraph. He almost worships her and, the effect given is they are now lifting their love to sacred or purer ground, not just all the bits that people usually associate with love. It is still in the balance though as Juliet hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t spoken a word to Romeo yet, everything he has said proves how strong his love is. Another religious idea is Ã¢â¬Å"blushing pilgrimsÃ¢â¬ used by Romeo on line 95. Pilgrims is used because it shows he is ready to make the journey of love with Juliet. The impression is that Romeo is waiting and that he wants to find the true meaning of his Ã¢â¬Å"religion.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare uses pilgrims cleverly as he makes Romeo more romantic than if he put how Romeo felt bluntly. It makes the audience feel that he deserves Juliet. Romeo is skilful in the way he gets to kiss Juliet. As I said before he is not blunt. Instead he uses Ã¢â¬Å"saintsÃ¢â¬ as his way of wooing Juliet. He is shown to the audience that he is a smooth charmer. He also talks of Ã¢â¬Å"sins,Ã¢â¬ this leads to him challenging Juliet and sort of be against what she should do. This is even more temptation and that is another way of how Romeo managed to get his kiss. Juliet responds by kissing him back, showing the audience that Romeo has been very clever indeed. She says Ã¢â¬Å"You kiss by the book.Ã¢â¬ This now shows that Juliet has given in and this is where their story starts and the part of the play speeds up a little. This is proven when Juliet finds out she is in love with a Montague, making it doubly interesting for the audience, so they start to get captivated. For Romeo, this is a complete contrast to how he was earlier in the Act. Earlier in the scene on line 53 he said Ã¢â¬Å"I neÃ¢â¬â¢er saw true beauty till this night,Ã¢â¬ shows that he finally realised he was never in love, just desperate. From now we realise the full extent of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Juliet. They both almost worship other and we see how much in Act 2. It is almost like they cannot be separated. In Act 2, Scene2, the audience knows for sure that RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s love is now true, unlike in Act 1 and is happy. Romeo compares to Juliet and being bright throughout page 89. The most obvious example is on line 3 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Juliet is the Sun.Ã¢â¬ This shows that he depends on her just as the Earth depends on the Sun. It gives the effect that he cannot live without her. This is backed from line 15 to line 20. A good example is on line 18 where Romeo says Ã¢â¬Å"The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars.Ã¢â¬ This shows his true affection for her as she shines out to him more than stars, or she shines out to him more than any other woman. Juliet responds to Romeo in the same sort of pattern, which is brightness. Words such as Ã¢â¬Å"bright angelÃ¢â¬ and heaven are used. I think Shakespeare did this to make sure the audience realised that things have definitely improved for Romeo and that he is now truly in love. Moving away from brightness, Juliet refers to him as Ã¢â¬Å"dear perfection,Ã¢â¬ this shows the feelings between them are shared. There are strong images used later on the Act. From line 80 to line 84, is a very strong image shown by Romeo. This means that Romeo would travel on a very risky journey to find her. This is again an example of how strong his love has grown for her. Throughout the Act there is a strong presence that Shakespeare is trying to show the contrast of Romeo in Act 1 and Act 2. In Act 1, we hear of Romeo moping saying he is in love, but in Act 2 we now hear he is in love but is lighter and more active than before. I think this is because in Act 1 Romeo could have thought he was in love but was not, so maybe his instinctive reaction was to sulk. Again these lines show a significant contrast to earlier when there were feelings of darkness. Romeo and Juliet are well and truly glued to each other by now. The love they have shown towards each other and is overwhelming. To them they will feel that nothing will tear them apart despite being Capulet and Montague. Their love will rise to unimaginable heights but the audience can tell that Shakespeare will add a cruel twist where something will happen to bring them apart.
The story was all about Vicente, the bus conductor and the tutor of the two children in a village. (paragraph 2) says, The girl at the age of seven and the boy at the age of eight ,simply tells us that there was a seven and eight year old child in the story. At the start of the story we could clearly see how the family and the mother (who is the president of their own village) trusted the conductor thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why in the first paragraph of the story, it says, Ã¢â¬Å"there was nothing to fear.Ã¢â¬ Victor was characterized as a gentle and kind. He was a dark little man whose voice is soft and calm in manners. This is the contrast to the characterization of the mother because she is tall and she spoke in a voice of very low, and very heavy. This emphasizes the darkness of Victor and the magnificence of the mother. While I was reading the story I saw the paragraph 6-8 and we can clearly see in this paragraph (that there was something strange or wrong in the motive of Victor for the little girl because he slapped the boy and started to say Ã¢â¬Å"boys donÃ¢â¬â¢t kiss boysÃ¢â¬ .the idea that Victor gives so much favour to the girl by giving her 3 pencils and by doting on her (paragraph 12) got my attention. While (paragraph 18) gives me an instinct to create personal judgment that Victor abuses the childhood of the little girl. The paragraph 23 says, Ã¢â¬Å" his face was all in sweat, and his eyes looked very strange, and he indicated to her that she must not turn around, attend to the homework she was writing.Ã¢â¬ this paragraph gives me a final conclusion of the whole story that Victor really likes the little girl. At the end of the story in (paragraph 36) the story tells us how the mothers raise their hands against the abuse of males. It implies that a women or a lady ought to be respected even if they are still young at age thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why in (paragraph 40) the mother says, Ã¢â¬Å"take a bath quicklyÃ¢â¬ . That means to say, to cleanse from all filthiness and stain that she received from Victor, the conductor. In (paragraph 41) the mother soaped her and wiped her gently all over because the story wants to teach us a lesson. That being a woman or as a lady we must preserve our purity and that we must be against from the abuse of males. There are times that we feel that the person is trustworthy but sadly they were not. Trust is gained. While reading the story only three subjectÃ matters revolved in my mind. The trust that we must gain, the dignity/respect that a lady must have and the heroic act or magnificent role of the mother in raising their kids these are the important lesson that we must get from the story. Trust can only be gain by the people who really deserve of it. We may deceive or act like somebody that was not the real of us but once the given trust fall apart it will be very hard to put the trust into its whole. It is an honour for us and a great morality if we act right for through our actions we get also the respect of people. Our purity tells the people that they should respect us. I think the story itself unveils us the importance of having respect/dignity in oneself, and importance of being a mother. One quotations said, Ã¢â¬Å"I love being a mother, I am more aware. I feel things on a deeper l evel. I have a kind of understanding about my body, about being a woman.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âunknown. Mothers protects their child from all abuses that man can give to their child. Wordcount:651
Friday, August 30, 2019
1.Ã In your opinion, who started the Cold War? Explain in 5 sentences. In one opinion, the Cold War was not started by one side or the other.Ã The Cold War was more of a culmination of political, cultural and ideological differences than anything else(Pierpaoli).Ã This being said, in fairness, both the West and the East provoked hostilities during the Cold War through various attempts to promote their respective political systems throughout the world.Ã Ultimately, the Cold War was not decisively won by the West; rather, the West was able to hold out longer than the East. 2.Ã List three major prolonged conflicts in the Cold War. During the Cold War, three major prolonged conflicts that erupted were the Korean War (1950Ã¢â¬â1953); the Vietnam War (1946Ã¢â¬â1975); and the war in Afghanistan (1979Ã¢â¬â1989)(Pierpaoli). 3.Ã How did the Cold War influence society and culture? 3 sentences The Cold War influenced society and culture in many ways.Ã Culturally, the Cold War gave birth to an entire genre of literature and motion pictures/television- the classic story of the Ã¢â¬Å"secret agentÃ¢â¬ .Ã In terms of society, the Cold War divided society in terms of whether people, in both the East and West, supported capitalism or communism, and the many facets that each system offered (Pierpaoli). 4.Ã Evaluate the role of technology on the Cold War. Technology also played a role in the Cold War.Ã It was through surveillance technology that the United States was able to protect itself from Soviet aggression, such as the detection of missile sites in Cuba, a mere 90 miles from the US mainland (Pierpaoli).Ã Technology also helped the Soviets to detect an American U2 spy plane within their airspace- an incident which almost sparked World War III.Ã Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, the nuclear weapon technology which both the US and USSR possessed held the potential to destroy the planet. 5.What was Watergate and how did it influence the Vietnam War? Briefly describe. When one speaks of Watergate, they are usually referring to illegal actions taken by President Richard M. Nixon. Watergate is said to have begun when Nixon ordered one of his closest advisors, Henry Kissinger, to tap the telephone of a New York Time reporter in order to try to determine who was Ã¢â¬Å"leakingÃ¢â¬ information to the media about a secret bombing mission in Cambodia (Greene).Ã This influenced the Vietnam War in that the public learned of the many outrageous secret missions of the American military in Vietnam, raising public opposition to the war itself. 6.`A Short History of Terrorism,` write a paragraph explaining the difference in modern `terrorism` and its historical antecedents given in this article. The single most remarkable difference modern terrorism and its historical antecedents is the fact that modern terrorism is not meant to advance the agenda of a particular nation, but is driven by the belief by many Middle Eastern nations that the United States is an evil empire which God would like to see destroyed (Greenberg).Ã This type of religious zeal gives modern terrorism its sharp teeth and deadly venom. 7. Write a brief essay explaining your views on whether America should move beyond Affirmative Action at this time. Support your position. America should move beyond Affirmative Action for several key reasons; first, as we have seen in recent months, opportunities have opened up for minorities from the most powerful office in the United States to the areas of entertainment, the media, and the average job in any city in the nation.Ã Additionally, the increasing cultural diversity of America is transforming the demographic of the nation so that rather than minorities (Gryphon), there are any number of Ã¢â¬Å"mini-majoritiesÃ¢â¬ in place, thereby making favoritism for any given group both outdates and unnecessary. 8. Did women have a positive role in the progressive movement even before they had the right to vote? What was it? Describe briefly. Women most definitely had a positive role in the progressive movement even before they had the right to vote because it was the women in society which held families together as men worked outside of the home for long hours, making the woman the essential person who fed/mentored the children, etc.Ã It was in roles such as these that women were already asserting superiority before they could cast a ballot (Friedan). 9. Did the U.S. do everything it could to help the Jews in Europe? Is our current foreign policy a reaction to this situation? Briefly describe. In the final analysis, the US did not do everything it could to help the Jews in Europe, as there is evidence to suggest that the American government knew about the plight of Jews in Europe for several years before getting involved to protect the lives and interests of European Jews.Ã In a way, it can be said that our current foreign policy is a reaction to this past situation, as the US is both trying to prevent any aggression against the Jews of the magnitude of that of the past in Europe, and also compensating Jews for past injustices. 10. What were the roles of television and advertising in creating the consumer society of the post-World War II world? Briefly describe. Television and advertising created the consumer society of the post-World War II world, as they both shared with millions of war-weary Americans a wide variety of products that were now available after years of rationing and scarcity due to the war effort.Ã This led to a consumer society, as American people not only grabbed the items that they needed and could not get for many years, but also those new items that had not been available before.Ã All of this made the nation one of hardcore consumers, a trend that continues today.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
EXCEL 5 - Assignment Example ceipts is also done to identify whether the trend is clearer, whether there are any anomalies left or any more cyclical patterns lasting more than one year. Finally, a review of the double smoothed results to determine whether the values from the projected position are reasonable. We can also determine the impact of the recent values on the projection and whether it skews the projection. From observing the raw receipt data, it is evident that there is both positive, negative and stationary trends at different months of the line graph. The initial months show a positive trend for the first points before a negative trend begins. This trend doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long before another stationary then positive trends are observed. Essentially, there is no definite trend with the raw receipts as it emerges as a zigzag trend of positive, negative and stationary trends. Generally, a positive trend is observed. There are few anomalies observed through the projection period. The first anomaly is a spike in the 10th month of the projection period. Another spike though not too significant is evident at the 22nd month. A significant anomaly is evident at the 46th month where the highest spike in the entire projection period is observed. Other minor spikes are shown at the 36th and 40th month of the projection period respectively. There is no significant dips (decreases) in the proje ction period although minor decreases in the 9th, 21st, 30th, 33rd and 45th can be observed from the graph. Particular patterns can be observed in the dips (decrease) and spikes (increase) in the projection period. The spikes (increase) seem to occur after twelve months exhibiting an annual pattern over the projection period. The dips (decrease) however, do not exhibit a particular pattern as some occur after 2 months. It is also important to note that after every dip (decreases) there is a spike (increases) in the following month but not of equal proportions. The comparison between the de-seasonalized and
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Critical Thinking Steps - Essay Example 19), an issue can be described as a question or a controversy that is responsible for a conversation or discussion that is taking place. It can further be described as the stimulus for whatever that the communicating parties are saying (Brown and Keeley, p. 19). The authors suggest that there are basically two types of issues namely the prescriptive and descriptive issues. The descriptive issues refer to issues that raise controversies or questions concerning past, present or future descriptions. On the other hand, prescriptive issues have been described as those issues which issues that raise concerns as to what is wrong or right. The case in the PDQ memo is a descriptive issue since the PDQ memo expressly states that Ã¢â¬Å"Specifically, the question is whether the compensation level for PDQÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO is appropriate to the position with respect to current industry standardsÃ¢â¬ (Mark Headlee, personal communication, October 1,2011 ). This clearly shows that the issue in the m emo questions whether it is right to pay the sum provided for the CEO after considering the current standards in that industry. According to Brown and Keeley (p.21), a conclusion can be described as the message that speaker or author wants you to accept as viable. The PDQ memo concludes by saying that, Ã¢â¬Å" Our finding is that the compensation of the chief executive is not appropriate to the current industry standards for a company the size of PDQ because it is malignedÃ¢â¬ (Mark Headlee, personal communication, October 1, 2011).
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Poems - Essay Example Here is a boy, surrounded by the beauty of Vermont, and he does not have the time to enjoy his youth. Then comes a greater shock, the injury to his hand. His subsequent death, however, does not surprise as much as the reaction to his death. The people simply turn to their affairs. This seems a cold reaction. There is no expression of mourning. Perhaps these people do not have time to mourn. Perhaps they are poor and don't have the energy to exert on matters which they cannot change. I finish this poem feeling somewhat cold-hearted. This poem is about the shortness of life. This poem strikes me as almost whimsical, and yet it leaves me feeling more concerned about loss. By whimsical, I mean that I almost feel as if I am reading a nursery rhyme or listening to a children's song. There is a great deal of repetition, and an almost indifferent attitude to losses. The things that are lost begin small and become larger as the poem develops. Despite this, there is no disaster. I am curious as to the almost cheerful tone of the poem and the reality of losses. The poem seems to be preparing us for a greater type of loss. In the end, the cheerfulness is shattered. The loss is too substantial to minimize the nature of the disaster. This is not a mother's watch. This is not a set of keys. The loss is a person, and I wonder how far the poet will extend her indifference to loss.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example Most importantly, India will be able to attain the prestigious position of China, its Asian competitor. The project cost the country about 73 million US dollars. Evidently, considering the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic standing, the space mission seems ridiculous and lacks justification. This paper will provide evidence that the space mission was a misplaced priority. If this mission proves successful, it may have a huge benefit to India. This is because it will receive recognition for utilizing improvisation to launch one of the cheapest missions to Mars. However, if it does not succeed, the country will have wasted invaluable resources of money and time that can be invested in raising the living standards of some families in India. Instead of paying all of this money to do a task like this, the money can be used to improve the economy and social problems in India. If India had a stable and a good standing economy, then it would be fine if they thought of launching this mission. Apparen tly, as this paper will discuss, India has many social issues to address. The country spent fifteen months of preparation for a mission that cost it 73 million US dollars. Statistics reveal that India exhibits a poor economy, a factor that highlights the need for it to design policies and strategies that can help its economy register a level of growth. It is unfortunate that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has been dwindling over the years (Bhowmick, 2013). The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s systems exhibit low quality with worrying poor standards of life. This places emphasis on the urgency for transforming its policy formulation strategies and striving to address its emerging needs. Instead of focusing on such issues that need critical addressing, the country has diverted its efforts, time, and resources to launching a space probe. The decision to focus on the space mission seems irrational, and the government cannot offer any valid justification for such an expenditure on a luxurious adventure in launching a space probe. Evidently, countries that focus on the space missions have registered immense progress in improving societal standards. Examples include the United States, which is the leading global economy and has held a superior position for many years. Evidently, the country has multiple policies in place to improve its social welfare and fund its internal research projects. Considering an additional example of Russia, it becomes evident that it has a stable economy, and can comfortably invest in space missions. Additionally, China joined the nations that have the capacity to fund space missions (Mirani, 2013). IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy does not compare with that of these nations, and explains why sacrificing 73 million US dollars is ridiculous. India does not compare with these nations, and its investment in space projects should be its last priority. In self-defense, India claims that 73 million is minimal compared to the 671 million US dollars that other countries woul d spend on such a venture. However, it does not matter the amount the country spent on the mission, the fact remains that the country could have redirected such funds to improving one of its poor social systems (Messreget, 2013). Evidently, that amount was sufficient to provide food for the malnourished children that add up to 50% of all children. It is ironical that a country can spend 73 million US dollars, while half the population of its children is perishing with hunger. Although it is true that
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Analyse the marketing environment of Dominos Pizza (UK) (worth 60 per cent of mark) and Critically evaluate how this organisation is responding to its changi - Essay Example The company finally went public in 2004, and was able to reduce its $908 million debt. This paper will thoroughly discuss the SWOT analysis of a company along with other factors that vitally impact the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s quest to become a leader in its market. A comprehensive study of the company through the SWOT analysis indicates several things about the corporation. The company has a solid brand reputation, which enables it to have some advantage over its competitors. In addition, the company has an excellent marketing strategy that often displays the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to improve in every aspect. Furthermore, the company has excellent operations management chain solutions, which allows it to allocate its resources effectively (Ã¢â¬Å"The pizza warsÃ¢â¬ ). Moreover, with the advent of the technology, 21.8% of the pizzas in UK are delivered via the internet. Arjun Sen, manager of the Restaurant Marketing group stated some few harsh words of DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s stating, Ã¢â¬Å"DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to define what it clearly stands in the minds of the pizza consumers.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The pizza warsÃ¢â¬ ). Although it has met with recent criticism, the employees are motivated to work harder with the chefs to protect the companyÃ¢â ¬â¢s brand. With that in mind, DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s decided to try cheddar bacon pizza melt to appeal to its burger lover customers. The company is able to serve decent-quality food at an affordable price with sanitary conditions, which gives it somewhat edge over its competitors(Ã¢â¬Å"The pizza warsÃ¢â¬ ) Overall, the company is adapting well to the changes made by the head executives. The renovation of the recipe of the pizzas was a very successful approach towards bringing back customers. The company continues to adapt to new technology to serve its customers in a highly fashionable manner. Although the company does seem to have strengths, it also has certain weaknesses. The company constantly struggles to tackle the problem of
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Second assignment topshop lt - Essay Example In the context of the present study, it needs to be mentioned that while analyzing the overall international business structure, the key business issues required to operate a business in the international market have been considered, which include marketing, logistics, organisational structure and communication. However, even before describing the proposed international business structure, it is important to provide a brief insight about market trend of the behaviour exhibited by the African consumers (Burgemeister, 2003, p. 192). African Retail Industry The launch of Topshop stores in Johannesburg and Durban shows the degree of attractiveness of the South African retail market. In the year 2011, The African Development Bank and AFDB provided a report that described the middle class of the country as those people having daily consumption of US$2-20 per day. Industrialists, however, wish to think differently. Mr. Mncane Mthunzi, the executive director of Massmart, believes that compan ies should not focus too much on the so-called definition of the African middle class. According to Mthunzi, as per the retailers, the disposable income should be decided by the fact whether the people coming to retail store have the money to buy the designated product or not. According to experts, the fact that the sub-Saharan Africa does not have modern retail outlets or major shopping malls does not imply the fact that the south-African consumers do not have the purchasing power. Experts believe that South African customers can be categorised as wealthy or upper class, rising or higher middle class and also rural customers. Analysts actually believe that the major retailers including global as well as local firms should actually focus on the rising middle class segment (Churchill, 2009, p.211). This is a group that is becoming more judicious in the consumer behaviour. Such groups are looking for quality branded products. Analysts also added that this is the trend that can be seen throughout the continent. However, as compared to other African neighbours, South Africa has shown rapid growth in the retail segment. The country has been able to get over the aftershocks of 2008 economic slump. In 2012, the country saw an economic growth of 2.6%. The retail sales have increased by 3.9%. The consumer spending has increased by $4,291 per capita. Managing the international distribution network One of the major decisions that a company has to make while aiming at internationalisation is managing the overall channel and distribution. One of the key elements of the distribution strategy is to decide upon the market entry strategy. There are various modes of entry that a company can choose, including joint ventures, strategic alliances, acquisitions, green-field strategy and franchising. While making the market entry decision into a foreign country, one of the key factors to be considered is the risk factor. In the context of this, it is to be mentioned that despite of growth potential, the African retail industry can be tagged as a virgin market. Also the disposable income of the people of Africa may not be as high as other European and North American nations since the African
Friday, August 23, 2019
Management and the Cultural Industries - Essay Example Music industry has as well attracted many followers and new artists are coming up every now and then hoping to make a living out of it. Features of music industry Diversity Music is one industry that has attracted people from all walks of life. No one is taken to be an alien in music since it incorporates all and inspires all regardless of gender, race, tribe or even age. It is so diverse that anyone can choose what they want to listen to (Abraham, 1974, p.292). It is not limited to only one theme but is diversified to accommodate all people so that everyone feels accommodated in this industry. Use of rhythms Any song produced is characterised by a certain way of presenting the lyrics to the audience. This way matters a lot since some musicians may sing off key and thus their music may not sell much. It is the organization of the beats and singing in a rhythmical way that makes all the difference. One canÃ¢â¬â¢t just present a song in any way and expect to change the audience. One rule should be: Ã¢â¬Ëpresent with audience in mindÃ¢â¬â¢. Practical Music is so applicable in our day to day lives and affects the way we lead our lives day in day out. One can identify with a certain song and be positively influenced maybe to stop a certain bad habit. Music is not a past tense event but one we live with thus assists in making our lives better if well applied where possible. Variety of compositional structures Music has several structures of composition since it could be solo or choir depending on the preference of the artist. Passages of homophonic chords could also be applied to make it livelier. This is could have a harmonic accompaniment which could be applied at the introduction, dynamic build up, and others at the climax (Dahlhaus, 1991, p.260). Reality of work in music cultural industry Music industry has grown pretty fast in this century as compared to how it was few decades ago. Much improvement has been made to ensure that this industry competes well w ith other industries. Players have been sensitised on how to ensure that their music is marketable and can reach many people and help them in various issues of life other than entertaining them. Players ought to concentrate very well to make sure that they are not carried away by fame and forget that music is self-employment and earns a living to them who take with the seriousness it deserves. Taking music as work is one character that will greatly assist the artists and make them realise that it needs to be taken seriously. It calls for one to work very hard and avoid many interruptions to concentrate with it. It could even land one to other side jobs such as master of ceremony in other events if taken seriously and accorded maximum concentration and dedication. In normal business life, working with dedication is suicidal to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s business as well as life. It is imperative that business people learn to work hard just as music industry players do. Thus, a business person and one who works in the music industry get connected in that both have to work hard to their level best to ensure that they get maximum
Research Business Concept Outline - Essay Example Prospective vacation package bidders can view web sites of businesses included in each package, for selection of most appropriate packages. Online payment and reservations are simplified with this process, as dates for vacation packages are already determined and payment online is more secure today with encryption, just as other online stores. Fees for offering part of a tour or vacation package on Vacation Bay are similar to listing fees on eBay. Business will not invested more than a few dollars for each listing. Costs for running Vacation Bay include web hosting, programming, database management and marketing. Brochures and emails can be sent to all hotels, restaurants, historical sites, museums and tour operators. The largest costs for advertising come from search engine optimization activities. Online auctions are widely accepted in Australia, so there are no legal concerns. There are consumer to consumer auctions such as Oztion5 and business to consumer auctions such as Grays.6 Businesses are required to include a Goods and services tax in their package portions. Ã¢â¬Å"The GST is a 10 per cent tax on most goods and services. Businesses that are registered for the GST and that sell qualifying supplies include the GST component on their tax invoice.Ã¢â¬ 7 An example of a vacation package in Queensland might include four nights at a B&B, two different restaurant dinners , two days of golf or art museum tours. Restaurants such as Fuse8 and Baguette9 already have websites with online reservations options. A restaurant such as Greeka,10 lacking an online reservations option, will benefit from exposure in offering a night or two at its restaurant as part of a package. Choice in packaging allows businesses to experiment with various images, by co-branding. Businesses are able to closely monitor success of different packages. The online
Thursday, August 22, 2019
A Personality Development Theory Applied in Choosing Career Essay This paper attempts to look at the Big Five, a personality development theory that is used in studying the dimension of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. The Big Five model is a product of empirical research and at present, the most accepted approach among psychologists in studying personality traits. 1 The five factors are known as OCEAN- openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. 2 It is said that theses possession of these traits may be stable for over 45 years that can start from early adulthood. 3 Parts and portion of traits are also heritable genetically. In addition, the traits are result of adaptation to the environment. Generally, these factors are viewed as universal and have been found in languages of different nations. Knowing where oneÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the dimension can be very useful for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement and realization of skills, talents and abilities. The Case Dave has long been dreaming of putting up his own business. After several years of working in the job which he definitely did not like, he finally decided to pursue his dream. At this point in time, Dave was not sure of what enterprise will best fit his personality. Applying the Big Five Personality Development Theory, we carefully examine DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s personality in order to see what are his dominant traits and characteristics, his weaknesses andÃ 1Buss, D. M. (1996). Social adaptation and five major factors of personality. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed. ), The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 180-207). New York: 2Guilford. Soldz, S. , Vaillant, G. E. (1999). The Big Five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 208-232 3Buss, D. M. (1996). Social adaptation and five major factors of personality. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed. ), The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 180-207). New York: unleashed talents if ever to be able to fit it with the kind of business that will best suit him. This is for the purpose of finding the better enterprise that will complement to his overall personality. This is important because the idea of putting up a business is much of a risk to take and Dave cannot afford not to be successful in his new chosen field after leaving his long time job. This is somehow a prelude to the future of his business because as the business and manger and owner to be, he will direct the efficiency and effectiveness of his business. To start with, traits and characters must be identified. In this case Dave provided us with some of his characteristics that are assumed to be relevant in helping him determine the best business for him. Dave mentioned that he was previously a paralegal and he had worked with attorneys and several clients in their law firm. He claimed that he often acts as a leader and in fact he formerly managed a staff. He added that he posses various leadership qualities though if given a choice, he would rather work alone. Applying the Big Five Personality Earlier, it has been mentioned that Dave, if given the chance will rather work alone, hence, we can conclude that he is an introvert. But since, he had longed desire to have his own business, it is inevitable to work with other person or to a group of person. By the word business, he is going to put up an organization. Building an organization means continuous interaction with other people and all the accompanied activities will operate in a relational or in a dynamic manner. Example of introversion is being independent and often being quiet. Introvert people prefer to do things by themselves and refuses to be helped by others and also disregard group activities because they see themselves more productive if they are alone. They are also the type who minimizes social involvement, in other words they prefer less socialization. Some of them are deliberately shy and some extreme cases found depression. Given that Dave wanted to put up his business and he also wanted to be alone if possible, I think the best business that will suit him is a coffee shop. Maintaining a coffee shop is not that difficult. Three to four people can be able to organize the business accordingly. If he will put up a coffee shop, he can be the one at the counter or he can hire another person to do that and all he needs to do is to supervise. Unlike his previous job wherein he had staff to lead to and attorneys and clients to deal with, a coffee shop business will put him in less trouble. If he has a passion in bartending, he can be the one to do it and all he needs to face is the waiter who will be passing the orders to him. As for agreeableness, undoubtedly, Dave has established leadership qualities necessary to operate a business. It will not be hard for him to deal with his employees to be, since he had his fair share on this matter on his preceding occupation. On the other hand, Dave showed did not mention about openness but I think it is safe to say that he is an open person because even if he has introvert qualities he bear with his colleagues for a long period of time and he tried to be a good leader and showed exceptional qualities of leadership in the law firm. Another proof of his openness is his likeness to have his own business. This means that he is open for new changes in his life to happen. Meanwhile, Dave has finally become assertive departing from his old reticent way. This is because at last he had the courage to left his job and starts a new with a business. Lastly, after evaluating the four factors of the Big Five, we can conclude that Dave is in the mid of imaginative and conventional dimension since he had let several years to past before actually realizing his wants, nevertheless he also posters creativity side as he was able to think of another form of occupation. In this activity, I learned the importance of knowing your personal traits and characteristics. Being familiar with your limitations and advantages may help you in various ways, likewise, it can help you understand others as well as to deal with them accordingly. Being acquainted with these traits will improve your relationship to other people and most of all it will contribute a lot in realizing your own potential and developing you as a person. References About. com Website (2008). The Ã¢â¬Å"Big Five Personality Model. Retrieved on January 17, 2008 from http://psychology. about. com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive. htm Buss, D. M. (1996). Social adaptation and five major factors of personality. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed. ), The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 180-207). New York: Guilford. Soldz, S. , Vaillant, G. E. (1999). The Big Five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 208-232
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Media And Communication Studies Problems In Encoding Media Essay Introduction Communication is the basic instinct of human being. The interaction and communication process is complex. It directs the researchers to understand the way the cognition works. Latest researches have become more advanced in the context of encoding. CDA (critical discourse analysis) and DA (discourse analysis) have been prerequisite to understand the encoding process. Objectivity, especially in the field of journalism is of great concern. The factors influencing the cognition and the process of encoding have been of the great concern for the communication scholars. Encoding is an integral part of the communication process. With out encoding and decoding it is not possible to communicate and being communicated. If we exclude the encoding the concept of communication is not possible. Mass media in Pakistan like any other media across the globe is working under the lines of responsibility but it is essential to understand the problems in encoding. Process of encoding and decoding is part of everyday communication. Anchormen, news reporters and producers play an important role beyond many others in communication field. Agenda setting, opinions building for a particular purpose have been the major area of interest for the communication experts and the journalists. It is obvious in our daily news media that some hot issues summarily go beyond the surface and the new one take their place to mold the attention of the public from one point to an other. This may go successful in one way when the message is encoded perfectly and then the receiver of the message decodes it in the way the sender wants it. For the successful and objective communication certain studies have been conducted by the communication and language experts focusing especially to the problems in the encoding process. PART II Encoding Definition: Encoding is the translation of purpose, intention, or meaning into symbols or codes. (Communication theories: Origins, Methods, And Uses in Mass Media 3rd Edition) By Werner J. Severin James W. Tankard, Jr Mostly these symbols are in the form of numbers, letters or words. These symbols work like bricks in forming the structure of any language. Other shapes of the encoding can be a photograph, motion picture, musical note or in the form of any sound. Encoding is such a process which demands deep attention to understand. It is the part of our routine life. Communication is the vital part of our life. We can not remain in isolation and feel relief when we express our intentions and feeling to any other person. The process of communication involves the most important factor that is encoding. Encoding basically occurs in mind. In other words it is the process of mind in which our intentions and what so ever we want to communicate is converted or shaped into the form of words which may be in the written or spoken form or can be any kind of gesture. We do the encoding on the basis of our knowledge and our past experiences. It is prerequisite for the journalists and communication experts to understand the encoding and its impact on the objectivity of the news or the message being conveyed. Encoding and the Society: Communication works like blood in the body. The process of interaction and transmission of the intentions and ideas from one to other person requires the cognition to come in work. With out the encoding it is impossible to deliver ones intentions to the other. The process of the encoding and decoding follow each other. A person encodes the message in reaction to what he/she decodes. Encoding process is available at every stage. In the field of communication from interpersonal to mass communication; each level has encoding in the process of dissemination of the information. At the mass communication level media disseminate the information to diverse societies. In the societies electronic journalism has a great role in providing the information about daily happening. The general public is regularly exposed to news channels and construct the opinion on the basis of what they watch and listen. Opinion of a society plays important role in the power play at social and national level and even impacts the international power structure. Keeping in mind the importance of the social opinion, it has been the concern of the communication scholars to ensure the objectivity at every stage of news and information dissemination. The process of delivering the information at this level passes through various stages. From the ordinary witness at the crime scene to the reporter, from reporter to the news desk, from news desk to the anchor person and from anchor person to the audiences, the process of encoding is involved at each stage. To ensure the transparency in the information distribution, making it objective and to provide the reality till the audience, certain studies have been conducted by the communication scholars. In the latest studies the scholars have conducted the Critical Discourse Analysis to study the way social power abuse; dominance and inequality are enacted, reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. It thus want to understand, expose and ultimately to resist the social inequality. Additionally the scholars have conducted the Discourse Analysis- a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, spoken, signed language use. Encoding and the Language: In the process of encoding, language plays an important role. A group of students of the language which is called General Semanticists have worked over the encoding. They also have identified some characteristics of the language. These characteristics are essential to understand in understanding the encoding and the problems in its process. To understand the process of encoding in our society, individuals of the society and the media experts including communication experts and journalists it is essential to be known about these characteristics of the language. Media experts and journalists themselves go through the process of the encoding to shape their selections and intentions and the reality of the world around, and this afterwards again shaped by the minds of individuals in the society. At this point to save the objectivity and the purity of news and the affairs about the world around is the major concern. The misuse of the language takes the communicator or the person being communicated to certain amalgamations of the problems. Following are characteristics of the language identified by the General Semanticists: Language is Static; Reality is Dynamic Language is Limited; Reality is Virtually Unlimited Language is Abstract Assumptions Built into Languages Language is Static; Reality is Dynamic: Words themselves do not change over the period of time, yet the world around us is full of change. In the process of the evolution it is the natural phenomenon that certain species are not permanent in their shape and structure but they keep on developing time to time. In this case it is fact that we use the same fixed limitations and the words to describe any event or the world around. We use some specified words and attributes for certain things and events but with the passage of time their importance and area of influence keep on changing. Mass media communication experts especially the journalists use a specified vocabulary and terms to convey daily happenings. In the developing countries like Pakistan, the journalists in mass media field are not literal to the level essential for their work and the media here is in the developing stage; which has the potential risk to objectivity and the true tackling of the matter of the encoding in the sense of obtaining the information and imparting it to the masses but with the gradual rise in the education towards the importance and the responsibility in the news dissemination process is bringing a positive change. Language is Limited; Reality is virtually Unlimited: According to Wendell Johnson (1972) there are 500,000 to 600,000 words in the English language and they are to represent millions of individual facts, experiences and relationships. The people generally use limited vocabulary for their conversation in daily life. Miller (1963) says that vocabulary for telephone conversation is 5000 words and for novel are 10,000 words. Journalists and communication experts generally have the limited vocabulary. They come across various events in their daily life which they finally encode and give the shape of words and voice and broadcast for the audience and viewers. According to this characteristic of the language they can not show the exact reality of the event. This aspect in other words compromises the objectivity required in the news dissemination process. Due to having the limited vocabulary it becomes hard to convey the true picture of the reality. Language is Abstract: According to General Semanticists in the abstraction process we select some details about anything and leave rest of the details. Every language contains some abstractions. It is one of the most important features of the language. It allows us to think in categories. Much of the human knowledge is bound up in the process of categorizing and classifying. As the words become more abstract their correspondence to the reality becomes less and less direct. In the process of encoding especially according to the journalism perspective, objectivity is the foremost thing to consider. It has adverse effects if the audiences are not conversant to the encoding and abstraction processes. Assumptions Built into the Language: As General Semanticists say; the structure and vocabulary of the language contains many assumptions about the nature of the reality. Wendell Johnson observed that the language we use not only puts words in our mouths, but it also puts notions in our heads. Many folk languages contain certain assumption which are influenced by the culture and norms in which the speakers of that language live. Our mind is like a room which is colored by our experiences and cultures and when we speak in native or foreign language, that language builds assumptions in our mind besides putting words in our mouth. Misuses of the Language: General Semanticists have identified some misuses of the language due its static limited and abstract nature. They have identified four common misuses. Dead-Level Abstracting Undue Identification Two Valued Evaluation Unconscious Projection Dead-Level Abstracting: This concept, described by Wendell Johnson (1946) refers to getting stuck at one level of abstraction. The level could be high or low. High level abstractions are words like justice, democracy, freedom, mankind, and communism, peace with honor, and law and order. The low level abstraction can be like, some one recounting every detail of his or her day. An effective message contains generalizations at a high level of abstraction, but there are also specific details at a low level of abstraction. One effective technique for doing this is to give a lot of examples. (Communication theories: Origins, Methods, And Uses in Mass Media 3rd Edition) By Werner J. Severin James W. Tankard, Jr Undue Identification: General Semanticists have described the undue identification as, the failure to see distinctions between members of a category or class. This term points out that they are seen as identical or identified. Another term for this is categorical thinking. In everyday discourse, it is sometimes referred to as overgeneralization. One common kind of undue identification is stereotyping. (Communication theories: Origins, Methods, And Uses in Mass Media 3rd Edition) Two Valued Evaluation: This is also known as thinking with the excluded middle. According to this, there are only two possibilities of any thing and there is no third possibility of being something at the middle. For example: Right or Wrong Day or Night The General Semanticists have advised the way to eliminate such kind of misuse of the language by having the multivalued evaluation. In other words, to think that there are a range of possibilities of anything. Unconscious Projection: According to the General Semanticists the unconscious projection is a lack of awareness that ones statements are to a degree statements about oneself. Wendell Johnson (1972) went so for as to claim that basically we always talk about ourselves. William Shakespeare said, Nothing is good or bad, but thinking makes it so. It is the I behind the eye that does the seeing. The seeing goes on inside our heads and inside our nervous system. What we see is our response to what we look at. (Communication theories: Origins, Methods, And Uses in Mass Media 3rd Edition) PART III Literature Review Stuart Hall: Stuart Hall has worked over encoding. His paper encoding/decoding was published in 1973. Many of the terms set by Hall remained influential in the field of cultural studies. Hall explored this work during his stay at Birmingham. Hall worked on that how media messages are produced, circulated and consumed. His essay challenged three major things in the communication process. He argued that; Meaning is not simply fixed or determined by the sender. The message is never transparent. The audience is not passive recipient of the meaning. According to him, distortion is built into the system. It is not the failure of the producer or the viewer. He argued that there is lack of fit between two sides of communication exchange. That lack of fit is between the moment of the production of the message and the moment of its reception. In other words, there is lack of fit between encoding and the decoding process. Cultural theorist Stuart Hall developed the reception theory. This theory analyses that how readers (audience) receive the literary text. This is basically a textual analysis approach that focuses on the range of negotiation and opposition concerning to the audience. According to this theory the text in any form is not accepted passively but the audience or the readers interpret the meanings in their cultural backgrounds and the past experiences. As per this theory, the process of encoding going on in any persons cognition is always influenced by his cultural background and the past experiences of the life. General Semanticists: In the world of communication, encoding has been the matter of the great concern. A group of students of language which was named as General Semanticists, have worked on the problems of encoding. This group was at first led by the Alfred Korzybski, a Polish who later migrated to United States of America. Encoding as being the basic element in the communication process which deals with the work of cognition is unavoidable in the process of analyzing the communication and the interaction of human beings with each other and its effects. In the process of accounting the importance of the encoding we can not put aside the role of the language. The language as being the central tool in the process of the communication affects the whole process of sharing the ideas and interaction with each other. Focusing on the vitality and the role of the language in encoding, they have identified some characteristics of the language that make the encoding difficult-especially in the language. These scholars have been in concern with the role of language in our daily life and its effects over our mental health. They have suggested to use the language in the way as the scientists use, to avoid the problems generated by the misuse of the language. Describing the characteristics of the language which make the encoding difficult, they identified the language as; Language is Static; Reality is Dynamic Language is Limited; Reality is Virtually Unlimited Language is Abstract Assumptions Built into Languages Misuse of the language causes the wrong encoding of any purpose or intention which takes the person being communicated, away from the reality. The person who gratifies his needs for information and news is on the stake of the key performers in the information dissemination process such as media producers, anchor-persons and the news reporters. General Semanticists have also identified some misuses of the language. Wendell Johnson has the prominent work in this regard. The misuses of the language are; Dead-Level Abstracting Undue Identification Two Valued Evaluation Unconscious Projection According to Wendell Johnson, getting stuck to a level of abstraction, and basically we always talk about ourselves, are the matters of the great concern. The field of journalism like other communication activities requires more attention towards these findings by the General Semanticists. The element of the objectivity has been of great concern. S. I. Hayakawa (1964) discusses three kinds of statements focusing the objectivity. Reports Inferences judgment According to him, the statement which is capable of verification is called the report. He describes the inferences as the statements made about unknown on the basis of known and finally he discussed the judgment as an expression of approval or disapproval for an occurrence, person or object. Journalists are sometimes challenged for their objectivity and unveiling the true picture of reality. For this the Hayakawa has advised to follow the report method of the statements and avoid inferences, statements and slanting. Encoding and Mass Media in Pakistan: Mass media in Pakistan has been playing active role in dissemination of the information to the audience at every newsworthy occasion. Certainly there is no scarcity of the hardworking journalists working in the whole process of the communication and the news dissemination. At the present stage there is great competition going on among various TV channels, of which most of the channels are newly emerged. Being the first in the broadcasting race some times the violation of the standards and ethics of news reporting is obvious. Some of the channels have been showing the videos of such a brutal incidents which would never be shown under the codes of ethics. Whether it is print or the electronic media, loopholes in the process of information gathering, processing and distributing stages are apparent. Government has established PEMRA to regulate the media but it too has been kept under the influence of the interests of the governing body in the past. In the print media there are a number of news stories available at the news desks which are firstly encoded by the reporters in the words on the paper, which sometimes are not written properly due to limited vocabulary of the language held with the reporter. There are gatekeepers at various stages of the news production which practice their influence on the word structure of the news. Sometimes a few newsworthy stories are left behind due to unavailability of the space in the print and the time in the electronic media and that reserved space is due to the immense influence of the advertisers, through which mass media generate the revenue. In such above mentioned conditions, the objectivity is the element of great concern in the whole process of the mass media. There have been no work done over the issue of encoding by the mass media of Pakistan and there is no research held over the audience way of the encoding in Pakistan. There are a few channels (TV, Radio) and newspapers which are never influenced by the rivalry of the circumstances and tried to provide the objective news to the audience and vied to unveil the reality. But to analyze the way the mass media in Pakistan encodes the messages and to analyze the way the audience further encode the messages, is the matter of great concern. PART IV Hypothesis To analyze the objectivity and the encoding process by the news media it is essential to set a hypothesis. Under the hypothesis we will discuss the level of objectivity and the way how mass media especially the news media (print and electronic) of Pakistan and the audience encode the news. Statement of the Hypothesis News media (print and electronic media) in Pakistan politicize the news PART V Analysis Mass media in Pakistan has diverse outlets. It is not merely confined to the print media or in the other words the newspapers. There are news agencies, newspapers, magazines, radio, TV channels, internet and the movie industry under the title of the mass media in Pakistan. Debating on the issue of the encoding we will pass through the performance of the all kinds of media in Pakistan focusing on the issue of politicizing of the news elements by the media industry. Pakistan as being one of the developing countries is passing through the process of the evolution in the field of industry, economy and the media field. Where there are various TV channels are getting approval for the start of the broadcast, there many newly born newspapers are sacrificing for there erectness and stability in the corporate culture of the present Pakistan. Besides this there is one more way of recreation, learning and information for the audience and that is radio listening. The radio Pakistan enjoys the vast area coverage with respect to other FM radio stations having a limited area for broadcast. Internet too is full of blogs and WebPages. Society in Pakistan is divided into urban and rural population. The urban population is being exposed to diverse media outlets than the rural population. The emerging news media in Pakistan has been influenced by the political economy being practiced by various corporate and the political bodies. The newly emerging media whether in the form of print or electronic have to vie for their existence and their existence can not be assured with out generation of the revenue. The struggle to generate the revenue some times put these media industries on the way other than the objectivity. The objectivity has been the great concern for the communication experts and the scholars. It would be the foremost responsibility of the mass media to provide the accurate picture of the reality and do not keep the audience away from the reality. Encoding of the news is blurred by the various key players in the media industry due to their affiliations with the corporate world and the political body. Corporate sector influences the media by using the advertisement tool and the political body cares for its interest and if the media go against, it puts the sanctions through the governmental media regulating bodies. This way, the corporate and the political bodies control the contents of the news and other media messages and make the reporters, news editors, columnists, anchor persons and the news producers to think in the way they want. As the general semanticists identified, due to the limited aspect of the language the reporter sometimes can not describe the reality of the incident in the way as it should be. The assumptions built in the language makes the key performers in the media industry to think in the way that is influenced by their culture and past experiences. As the Wendell Johnson said, the opinions of the columnists are to some extent the talks about themselves. These are basically their opinions and not necessarily the reality of something. The element of the judgment according to the Hayakawa is also visible in the opinions given in the news articles and the columns. Reports are the only the way to come up with the reality for the audience. There are the reports that can only be verified and are credible thats why the emphasis is given on the report (a type of statements according to Hayakawa). The audience as per the uses and the gratification theory gratifies their needs from the mass media in the form of the news and the entertainment. And if they gratify their needs on the basis of the news encoded by mass media under the influence of any corporate or the political body, they will live with the wrong picture of the world around them in their brain and that will effect their reaction in the social life. Agenda setting aspect of the mass media is also applicable in this regard. The influential bodies and sometimes the personal bias of any of the key performers in the mass media molds the structure of the news in a particular sense generating collection of words which causes to set a particular agenda in the public. Sometimes the political influence of the political body being the major provider of the advertisements to the mass media makes news media to make an issue over particular news in the media and bury the other news which however may cause any harm to the political body. The contents of the news in the media are also affected by the advertiser which buys large space or the time in the news media and this way controls consciously or unconsciously the news flow and its encoding. Some of the events have been given more than the due time and rests of the important events are kept at the stand by although the newsworthy incidents keep happening all the time in any of the corners of the country. The news is not merely encoded by the news media but it is further encoded by the audience and it then further travels to the rest of the audience through their opinion leaders in the public sphere. If the encoding at any stage in the news media is of that other than reality and away from the objectivity, the travel of the information at any stage will not be fruitful for the audience. PART VI Findings News media in the Pakistan are encoding the news messages for the audience. Those media that are strong are practicing better encoding of the news and focusing on the element of objectivity than those which are newly born and needs revenue from advertisements for their strength building in the media market. The threat to the objective encoding is expected in the talk shows where the anchormen conclude the discussion and give inferences and judgments. This aspect is also visible in the news articles and columns which are basically their own opinions about the reality. Audiences further encode the messages based on what kind of encoding done by the news media they come across. They remain away from the reality if they are gratifying from the inobjective encoding by the news media. Thanks With Best Regards M Bilal Bhatti MS 1 Media Communication Studies IIUI, Islamabad
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Key Worker Living Scheme Analysis Key Workers Conference Abstract Affordable housing in London is an issue which affects many individuals and the problem of affordable housing is particularly of concern to poorer sectors within London and those in low paid employment (Greater London Authority (2005) 1) (Pacione, M. (1997) 8) and (Greater London Authority (2006) 1). This is a situation which remains unchanged by the fact that there are schemes in place which purport to ameliorate the problems relating to affordable housing experienced by many people living and working in London (Rugg, R. (1999) 19-20). Schemes such as the Key Worker Living scheme which is administered through the offices of the Deputy Prime Minister, the Teachers Housing Association Scheme and London Strategic Housing have been targeted specifically at key workers who experience housing needs in London. However, although the government have made many housing provisions for London based key workers, the problem remains that these provisions arguably do not extend far enough. Specifically, it may be argued that the definition of what a key worker is is perhaps too narrow. It may also be argued that those who fall outside the definition of key worker, but nevertheless experience housing problems are being let down by the government, principally because many of them simply do not qualify for the schemes which have been mentioned above. The fact that house prices in London are increasing quite rapidly, and that the average salary within London has not increased in the same proportions sharpens the hardships experienced by those in low paid employment in London, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify for key worker schemes. These arguments will be put forward and evaluated in this paper and there will be a wider discussion of whether there is any real need to continue to have a Ã¢â¬Ëkey worker requirementÃ¢â¬â¢ to trigger the assistance which is available to those in need of housing support within London. The paper will also consider wider economic, socio logical and political factors and will employ a qualitative, evaluative methodology in doing so. Who is included within the definition of a Key Worker? The people to whom the status of key worker is attributed to must firstly be employed in the public sector dispensing essential services in a sector where there are problems with recruiting staff and retaining their services. Categorises of people who fulfil this criteria are: clinical staff employed by the NHS, for example nurses (doctors and dentists are excluded); teachers working in maintained primary and secondary educational institutions; police officers, community support officers and prison staff; uniformed staff in the fire and rescue services; probation officers and local authority employed staff (for example educational psychologists) (Department of Communities and Local Housing (2006) 1). Perhaps it is also wise to comment on which workers may not fall within the definition. These sectors may include cleaning staff and support staff within teaching institutions, many categories of unskilled labourers, support staff wi thin hospitals and universities and those who provide support services within other professions. Why assistance is particularly tied to the Key Worker Sector; and What is being done to assist those who are not Key Workers? The rationale behind tying housing assistance to key workers is built upon much common sense. It is sensible to ensure that workers who provide key services are encouraged to stay within key occupations that provide useful services to the general public. Perhaps the need for such a rationale can be brought more sharply into focus by considering what may occur if essential workers were Ã¢â¬Ëpriced out of the marketÃ¢â¬â¢. A scenario like this will deplete the services which are available to the entire population within a given area and would perhaps impact hospitals and schools in particular. It is plain to see therefore why housing assistance in terms of affordable housing is targeted at these sectors which may be described as containing key workers. However, there is also an argument to be made that these provisions are not enough, and that they fail to a cknowledge the wider issue which is that affordable housing affects many individuals who fall outside the definition of a key worker. The reality is that the problem of affordable housing is a pervasive one, and, as we have seen explained above, the definition of key worker is quite a narrow construction. Therefore many non key workers have very low incomes but do not meet the criteria which are prescribed to give them key worker housing assistance. The services which these groups provide are indeed essential; they help to support the day to day running of essential services and are therefore crucial to the lives of all of those living in London. It seems logical therefore that these individuals should be given the same levels of support that key workers are given when it comes to the issue of affordable housing. As we have seen explained above, the reality is very different, and critics of the fact that just key workers qualify for many schemes to provide housing support point to the actual need experienced by the individuals involved; not just to the wider usefulness that housing support schemes may afford the ge neral public (which is the justification for the linkage between some housing support and just key workers). However, is it the case whereby the government simply ignore the needs of those who do not qualify for housing assistance as they are not key workers? Clearly this is not the case. The government operate housing associations and special needs facilities for those individuals who have needs due to disability or poverty. Those who are on low incomes may qualify for the new tax credits schemes and indeed for rates relief or housing benefit to help lessen the effects of the affordable housing problem. In terms of specific housing provision, non key workers may take advantage of some Social Registered Landlord SchemesÃ which include Home Exchange and Right to Acquire Schemes. The Home Exchange scheme is open to secure, or assured tenants and involves exchanging homes between tenants with the permission of landlords; other schemes include the Seaside and Country Homes initiative which involves the allocation of homes to those considered deserving (not necessarily key workers); the Homefi nder Direct scheme which is similar to the Seaside and Country Homes scheme and the LAWN project which makes homes available to ethnic minorities (www.cityoflondon.gov.uk). These schemes are intended to assist all those in need of housing assistance and not always just key workers. However, how much help do these schemes really deliver? The reality of poverty in London means that many tenants on low incomes are not those who would qualify for the Home Exchange scheme or other schemes, since they may not have assured tenancies. People who receive housing assistance in the form of housing benefit lose their entitlement to benefit if their savings are over a certain threshold, and therefore it appears that poor people in London, who experience housing need and who are not covered by the key worker schemes are in a state of perpetual poverty. It also appears that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s main solution to the housing problem in London is to suggest that people within London should make an effort to relocate in other areas where housing and living is cheaper. This is tantamount to indirectly saying that low paid workers do not deserve to live within London; indeed the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to acknowledge the problem or to deal with it in any other way reinforces this point and effectively classes poorer people as second class citizens. This attitude taken by government also takes no consideration of the fact that many people who cannot afford to live in London, as they are not covered by key worker schemes, and who the government expects to simply relocate to other parts of the country, may have relations who live in London, and may have spent their entire lives there. To expect these people to abandon their roots is not a realistic solution to the problem of affordable housing in London. Also, given that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s main approach to the problem of affordable housing for poor people who are not covered by key worker schemes is to relocate, no assistance is offered to those who actually have jobs in London and who are faced with a choice between unemployment forced through relocation, and continuing to experience housing need while being employed in London. None of these problems have easy answers, but clearly a good approach to the problem is to more explicitly acknowledge that there is a problem to start off with, and it is also clear that to only offer assistance in the form of housing support to key workers is to assist one category of people in housing need by making another groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ housing need more acute. Conversely however, on a macro and political level the government have attempted to make better use of the space which is available to build affordable housing within London. This has involved the conversions of abandoned commercial sites for use as housing sites (Greater London Authority (2005) Section 5.4). This is intended to ensure that available space within London is used sensibly to help lessen the effects of shortages in housing building sites. Clearly this will be of long term assistance to both key workers and non key workers. On a macro level another example of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts in this area is their current emphasis on building Ã¢â¬Ësustainable urban environmentsÃ¢â¬â¢, an emphasis which is of benefit to all of those affected by the affordable housing problem, not just those considered to be key workers. The government has also conducted many research initiatives into identifying the root causes of affordable housing problems and aiming to eliminate them. Although these initiatives only address the needs of those affected by the affordable housing problem in an indirect sense, it is clear that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts on a macro scale (Karn, V. and Wolman, H. (1992) Ch 1) are intended to help those key workers and those non key workers who are all affected by the affordable housing problem. The problem remains however, that non key workers simply do not get the levels of support that key workers may qualify for, in spite of the fact that perhaps both sectors arguably equally deserve this. Therefore, would the problem of affordable housing be more fairly approached by simply abolishing the requirement for workers to qualify as key workers in order to qualify for housing support within London? Another approach would be to make it easier to fall within the definition of what a key worker is. The answer to these two suggestions is that perhaps there is an argument for this to be the case, but it must be counterbalanced against the fact that resources within this area are limited. It is inevitable that there will be a deserving case to be made for many third parties who do not fall within the current definition of whatÃ a key worker is and of course, it is the case that it is desirable for all of those who are in need to receive housing support. As we have seen explained above however, there is a cogent rationale for why support is targeted at the key worker sector in particular. Key workers provide valuable services to the entire community and to neglect them would be detrimental to the levels of available services which all those resident in London often depend upon. The reality is that limited resources have to be dissipated in ways that are prescriptive and designed to exclude some categories of people. This exclusion does not point to an idea that the excluded person is undeserving; instead it points to the fact that there are limited resources which have to be expended in a frugal manner. However, this is not to say that more lateral thinking on the part of the government and a more open acknowledgement on the part of the government that non key workers experience acute housing need in London would not go a long way to lessening the housing hardship which they experience.
Monday, August 19, 2019
"If we each take responsibility in shifting our own behavior, we can trigger the type of change that is necessary to achieve sustainability for our race or this planet. We change our planet, our environment, our humanity every day, every year, every decade, and every millennia." -- Yehuda Berg The state of our environment has been deteriorating for centuries. Every part of the planet has been negatively impacted by man. Environmental degradation was greatly accelerated by the industrial revolution that took place in the 19th century. The industrial revolution mechanized the production of goods and introduced the use of machinery and other heavy equipment which were fueled by dirty sources of energy. At first, wood and coal powered the engines of industry, later they were replaced by natural gas and petroleum(Alters 51-63). At this point, it simply is not enough to just "do no harm" to the environment. We must immediately begin to act on behalf of the environment, instead of just not against it. My ethics concerning the environment have always run along the lines of "shallow ecological thinking,(Naess)" as Arne Naess called it. I choose to avoid pollution and to reduce, reuse, and recycle because these actions seem beneficial to humans in one way or another. This reasoning is shared by many people in regards to the environment and animal rights considering anything as a means to human ends, rather than as ends in themselves. Even the above passage from the Bible seems to allocate all the goods of the earth to humans and puts all the natural resources under their direct supervision. I understand the above passage to mean that man is obliged to look after the environment and to protect it, much like a mother looks after her chi... ...ered by a world of people. We need to keep in mind, however, that ethics do not develop spontaneously, so we must allow a bit of leeway, some room to move, grow, and evolve. With this mindset, the environmental damage can first be slowed, then stopped, and eventually reversed and mended. It may seem drastic, but this plan of action may be more necessary than the people of our needy planet realize. Works Cited Alters, Sandra, ed., Ã¢â¬Å"Coal.Ã¢â¬ Energy: Supplies, Sustainability and Costs. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007. 51-63. EBC. OhioLINK Scholarly and Reference E-Books. Web. 17 Apr. 2015 Naess, Arne. "THE SHALLOW AND THE DEEP, LONG RANGE ECOLOGY MOVEMENTS" Inquiry (Oslo), 16 (1973). Web. 5 May 2015 http://www.alamut.com/subj/ideologies/pessimism/Naess_deepEcology.html Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. Second ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Today's business world is complex, unpredictable, uncertain and volatile. One of the key elements of this volatility is the swift change all around us. Taking into consideration the motor insurance industry, changes have been also made during the years. Under motor insurance, there are three types of cover available. There is the third party only, which is obligatory as it is the least required by law; it covers your liability to third parties for damage or injury to property arising from the use of your car. In addition to third party liability cover, one can also choose to be covered and protected against damage or loss arising from fire or theft, which is known as Third party fire and theft. If you add protection against accidental damage to your vehicle to the ones mentioned above, you are covered with the comprehensive. Latest statistics shows that car ownership and traffic volume are in the rise once more and this has been the agenda of the government. The number of people owning cars has grown since 1980, thus this represents good news for car manufacturers and insurance firms alike. Also it has come at an environmental cost that there is a rise in carbon emissions. In the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) newsletter of November 2011, the section of the insurance statistical review of 2010 shows that figures released by the MFSA in respect of insurance companies in Malta show an increase of 45% in total gross premiums written over the period of 2009-2010. The accident and health group of classes recorded an increase in premiums written of 85% over 2009. The motor insurance premia increased by 39% Going back to the 20th century, motor vehicles made their first appearance, but there was no need for insurance in an... ...efore increases the number of claims. The market is developing and it has come to a point where customers can go into price comparison sites such as confused.com or moneysupermarket.com and by simply typing in a query, the consumer is presented with a variety of insurance prices from which they can acquire their insurance at competitive rates. Works Cited http://www.esurance.com/insurance-resources/senior-car-insurance-myth http://www.streetdirectory.com/etoday/negative-effect-of-globalization-pcecwf.html http://www.carinsurancehub.com/car-insurance-and-credit-crunch.php http://www.talkonce.co.uk/the-history-of-motor-insurance/ http://www.autoinsurancequote.com/articles/customization-adding-tweaks-to-your-vehicle-may-affect-your-auto-insurance.html http://www.carinsurancecomparison.com/will-customizing-my-car-affect-my-car-insurance-rates/
Saturday, August 17, 2019
While there is a tendency to misspell his name as Ã¢â¬Å"AryabhattaÃ¢â¬ by analogy with other names having the Ã¢â¬Å"bhattaÃ¢â¬ suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells his name thus, including BrahmaguptaÃ¢â¬â¢s references to him Ã¢â¬Å"in more than a hundred places by nameÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, in most instances Ã¢â¬Å"AryabhattaÃ¢â¬ does not fit the metre either. Time and place of birth Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3,630 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476. Aryabhata was born in Taregna (literally, song of the stars), which is a small town in Bihar, India, about 30 km (19 mi) from Patna (then known as Pataliputra), the capital city of Bihar State. Evidences justify his birth there. In Taregna Aryabhata set up an Astronomical Observatory in the Sun Temple 6th century. There is no evidence that he was born outside Patliputra and traveled to Magadha, the centre of instruction, culture and knowledge for his studies where he even set up a coaching institute. However, early Buddhist texts describe Ashmaka as being further south, in dakshinapath or the Deccan, while other texts describe the Ashmakas as having fought Alexander. Education It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as BhÃ skara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as PÃ Ã¡ ¹ aliputra, modern Patna. A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution (kulapati) at Kusumapura, and, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well. Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar. Other hypotheses Some archeological evidence suggests that Aryabhata could have originated from the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala. For instance, one hypothesis was that aÃ âºmaka (Sanskrit for Ã¢â¬Å"stoneÃ¢â¬ ) may be the region in Kerala that is now known as KoÃ¡ ¹ uÃ¡ ¹â¦Ã¡ ¹â¦allÃ «r, based on the belief that it was earlier known as KoÃ¡ ¹ um-Kal-l-Ã «r (Ã¢â¬Å"city of hard stonesÃ¢â¬ ); however, old records show that the city was actually KoÃ¡ ¹ um-kol-Ã «r (Ã¢â¬Å"city of strict governanceÃ¢â¬ ). Similarly, the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala were used to suggest that it was AryabhataÃ¢â¬â¢s main place of life and activity; however, many commentaries have come from outside Kerala. Aryabhata mentions Ã¢â¬Å"LankaÃ¢â¬ on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya, but his Ã¢â¬Å"LankaÃ¢â¬ is an abstraction, standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini. Works Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, some of which are lost. His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines. The Arya-siddhanta, a lot work on astronomical computations, is known through the writings of AryabhataÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporary, Varahamihira, and later mathematicians and commentators, including Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I. This work appears to be based on the older Surya Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhatiya. It also contained a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (shanku-yantra), a shadow instrument (chhAyA-yantra), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular and circular (dhanur-yantra / chakra-yantra), a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra, an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra, and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical. A third text, which may have survived in the Arabic translation, is Al ntf or Al-nanf. It claims that it is a translation by Aryabhata, but the Sanskrit name of this work is not known. Probably dating from the 9th century, it is mentioned by the Persian scholar and chronicler of India
The dramatization and object lesson witnessing approach was extremely dominant in the Old Testament. This witnessing approach that was present in the ministry of Hosea, Jeremiah, Elisha and especially Ezekiel the priest-prophet did not vanish with the passing of the Old Testament era. According to Braudis (2012) Object lessons use something familiar and known to introduce something less familiar or unknown or to further reinforce something that is already familiar. Using simple illustrations and object lessons will increase people understanding of Bible truths better than a factual word explanation would. In the New Testament dispensation, the dramatization and Object lesson witnessing approach is demonstrated through the use of parables and allegories. It has been said that a parable is an earthly story with a heavenly meaning. Blank, ( 2001) states, parable is derived from the Greek word pronounced parabole, meaning a likeness or comparison. A parable is a method of teaching using a comparison between two things. Parables were a heavily utilized form of teaching and instruction in the Jewish economy. In His ministry, Jesus commonly employed the use of parables to illustrate and illuminate profound truths. SDA Commentary 1980, points out, the parables of our Lord were usually based on common experiences of everyday life familiar to His hearers, and often on specific incidents that had recently occurred. On parable on a recently occurred incident was that of the Good Samaritan. (White, n.d.) says, this was no imaginary scene, but an actual occurrence, which was known to be exactly as represented. SDA Commentary, (1980) indicates that in using parables Jesus; (1) aroused interest, attention, and inquiry, (2) imparted unwanted truth without arousing prejudice, (3) evaded the spies who pursued Him relentlessly, (4) created in the minds of His hearers lasting impressions that would be renewed and intensified when the scene presented in the parables again came to mind or to view, (5) restored nature as an avenue for knowing God. On the other hand, the dictionary describes an allegory as the representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition). The apostle Paul using an allegory states, Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelieversÃ¢â¬ ¦ (II Cor. 6:14) Walters, (1957) says, in this case the yoke represents unhappy unions of those who are saved with those who are unsaved in any service or work. Additionally, the Church is called the Ã¢â¬Å"bodyÃ¢â¬ of Christ in (I Cor. 12:27) and the New Jerusalem is compared to a bride. (Rev. 21:2). (Stedman , 2009) advances the following interpretive principles can we draw from this biblical example of allegory; (1) Allegory is a bona-fide figure of speech used in the Bible. (2) It employs comparison and correspondence of words and ideas. (3) It is illustrative and explanatory of a specific line of truth. (4) It cannot be divorced from its local context or the historical narrative from which it is drawn. (5) It is comprised of a number of metaphorical expressions in which the meaning of one word is invested in another. (6) None of the figurative expressions are so obscure as to leave us guessing as to their import. (7) We can expect to learn something from their use that will be of profit applicable to life. Amidst the myriad of witnessing approaches, it is our settled conviction that dramatization and object lessons as presented in the New Testament can be a very effective model of witnessing in a contemporary setting. References Blank, W. (2001). Why Did Jesus Use Parables? Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.keyway.ca/htm2001/20010728.htm Braudis, B. (2010). Teaching Truth With Simplicity. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.busministry.com/teaching-simplicity-with-truth.html Nichol, F. et al (1980). The Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary. Washington: Review and Herald Publishing Association Stedman, R. (2009). Allegories and Types: Basics of Bible Interpretation. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://www.raystedman.org/leadership/smith/ch9.html Walters, W. (1957). Dictionary of Bible Types. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.raystedman.org/leadership/smith/ch9.html White, E. G. (n.d.). The Desire of Ages: The Good Samaritan. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.whiteestate.org/books/da/da54.html Why did Jesus teach in parables? Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.gotquestions.org/Jesus-parables.html
Friday, August 16, 2019
Nelson Mandela in his book, Long Walk to Freedom argues through the first five parts that a black individual must deal, coop, and grow through a society that is hindering their livesÃ¢â¬ with apartheid and suppression of their rightful land. Rolihlanla Mphakanyiswa or clan name, Madiba was born on July 18, 1918 in a simple village of Mvezo, which was not accustomed to the happenings of South Africa as a whole. His father was an respected man who led a good life, but lost it because of a dispute with the magistrate. While, his mother was a hard-working woman full of daily choirs. His childhood was full of playing games with fellow children and having fun. In school, Mandela was given his English name of Nelson. After his fatherÃ¢â¬ s death, he moved to love with a regent, who was a well-off individual and owed NelsonÃ¢â¬ s father for a previous favor. The next several years were full of schooling for Nelson. These schools opened NelsonÃ¢â¬ s eyes to many things, which we will discuss later. He and the regentÃ¢â¬ s son, Justice decided to travel to Johannesburg and see what work they could find. They left on their journey without the regentÃ¢â¬ s permission, but eventually escaped his power and settled down in the town. In Johannesburg, Nelson settled down in a law firm as an assistant and went to University of South Africa and Witwatersrand University to further his law education. Witswatersrand University brought many new ideas to Nelson and awakened a spirit inside of him. The next several years, Nelson met many new political friends and began his involvement in the ANC. Also during this time, he met Evelyn and they became married. Gradually NelsonÃ¢â¬ s political involvement grew and his family life declined. Nelson and his good friend, Oliver Tambo opened a law firm, which took up most of NelsonÃ¢â¬ s time. Evelyn mothered two of NelsonÃ¢â¬ s children, but the gradually grew apart. Now, Nelson was an influential political individual and bans and jailing began to follow him around. One day, a young woman came into his life by the name of Winnie and they got married. Winnie gave birth to two more of NelsonÃ¢â¬ s children. As time passed, NelsonÃ¢â¬ s spirit for freedom grew more and more each day. Though his life was full of bannings and jailings, he never gave up his fight, but he knew that the south African government was becoming agitated with him and the ANC. The South African government became ruthless and strict and this forced Nelson to leave his family. After he left his family, he went underground. NelsonÃ¢â¬ s life has been full of hardships and decisions, but his heart for the struggle has never faltered. Now let us examine Nelson in closer detail. Nelson is an individual who fought through many hardships, but was also faced with decisions that affected his future, his family, and his livelihood. As we look at Nelson deeper, we can see many interesting points. He was opened to new ideas and beliefs through his experiences in the schools of Heraldtown and Fort Hare, but knew there was something better. He decided to travel to Johannesburg to find new and greater opportunities. While, in Johannesburg, he believed education would be a key asset. While working for a small firm, he took classes at University of South Africa and eventually Wits University. Here is where his mind and social life flourished. He interacted with great minds and influential political individuals. He talked to many Africans without proper education, who contained more knowledge and better social skills than many Africans with education. But, he still persisted in acquiring his B. A. Wits University brought his life to new extents. He was also talking to Indians, Coloureds, and whites for the first time in his life and Becoming friends with many more prominent African individuals. Nelson soon joined the ANC and became very prominent in the fight for freedom. Nelson was always open to listening to new ideas, but when his was just starting his fight. He believed that just Africans should fight the struggle and that the Indians, Coloureds, and communists would hinder their fight. As the ANC grew, Nelson also became well known. He was part of the Youth League, another beneficial part of the ANC. Nelson was not president yet, but was powerful enough to voice is opinions, which many people listened to and believed in. As NelsonÃ¢â¬ s political involvement grew, the police became more aware of him. Nelson received ban after ban, which ranged from months to years. He also experienced jail time constantly. Eventually, the policeÃ¢â¬ s pursuit of him forced him to go underground. Nelson was also becoming more open-minded. He now believed that the fight should involve the Indians and the Coloureds. He also believed that Communism did have some good points, but he would never accept the whole communism aspect. There were many freedom fighters in South Africa. One that stood out was Dr. Xuma. Dr. Xuma was friend of Nelson and the president of the ANC, but the struggle forces many hardships on oneÃ¢â¬ s life. Nelson gave everything up to pursue his fight for freedom. He left his family, his prospering law firm, and his past for the struggle. Dr. Xuma believed in the same ideas as Nelson, but would not give up his prominence with the whites and his wealthy occupation for the struggle. This decision had to be made by many freedom fighters. Nelson gave his life for the fight. While, Dr. Xuma thought his career was more important. Now let us look closer at some issues seen through MandelaÃ¢â¬ s book. Through this paragraph, I will compare foreign influence seen in Long Walk to Freedom to foreign influence seen in Mexico through Professor HornibrookÃ¢â¬ s lectures and notes. As I have seen through your lectures, South Africa was affected by foreign influence from the British and the Dutch. MandelaÃ¢â¬ s autobiography helps give more detailed accounts of the European influence seen in South Africa. Ever since Mandela was born, the EuropeanÃ¢â¬ s power affected his people. European influence could be seen through every aspect of life. In MandelaÃ¢â¬ s school, he was given an English name and this was because Ã¢â¬Å"this was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. Ã¢â¬Å"(14) Also, Ã¢â¬Å"the education I received was a British education, in which British ideas, British culture, British institutions were automatically assumed to be superior. There was no such thing as African culture. Ã¢â¬Å"(14) This shows that it was difficult to get away from the British influence even for children in school. The British and the Dutch governments passed several acts that were instituted to fight against the Africans freedom struggle. The Africans struggle for independence was slowly growing and this scared the government. A new term was being seen and it was called Ã¢â¬Å"apartheid. Ã¢â¬ The government enacted laws and acts that prohibited Africans from doing Many things that were vital to their fight and survival. The Group Areas Act was one example. This act called for each racial group to be separated into separate areas. Another act was the Population Registration Act, which showed that race had become the most important and influential aspect of South African law and society. Another act was the Suppression of Communism Act. This act called for all communists to be brought to trial. The police could arrest anyone they believed were trying to overthrow the government by violence and communist ways. Lastly, the government put bans on individuals who were becoming to involved in the struggle and finally the government banned the ANC and all other liberation groups. This ban now made freedom fighting was illegal in South Africa. The effect of foreign influence was drastic. Africans lost sense of African culture in schools. While, the foreign government tried everything to break down the Africans chance for liberty. The foreign influence seen in South Africa crushed the AfricanÃ¢â¬ s hope and survival. While this was occurring in South Africa, Mexico was also seeing the effect of foreign influence. Americans and Europeans came into Mexico and gained much power. Haciendas helped their rise and foreign investment in many minerals and oil. But, Mexico did not approve of this and changed it. In 1917, Mexico created a new constitution, which limited foreign investment and promised land reform. This showed that Mexico did not want an overpopulation of foreigners and would not allow it. While, in oil, the foreigners controlled much of the oil, which Mexico had an abundance of. In 1938, oil workers went on strike and the companies would not give in, but instead of allowing foreign influence to become too powerful. The Mexican leader, Cardenas sent in arbitrators. The arbitrators called for the one/third pay increase, but the companies refused. Therefore, Cardenas nationalized oil and limited the power of foreign influence in Mexico. Now, Mexican oil was controlled by PEMEX, which is controlled only by Mexico. Mexico become a large influence in the oil market during the oil crisis, but also went though hyperinflation and eventually needed some foreign help. But, the Mexicans would not allow foreign influences to dominate the Mexican state as foreigners have affected South Africa. Now I will examine another issue seen in the book. In this paragraph, I will examine the movement seen in Long Walk to Freedom to the movement seen in China during the 1900Ã¢â¬ ³s. In South Africa, the movement I saw was the Africans fighting for freedom. In their time of struggle, they had little help from those with power. The liberation movement involved peasants, educated, and well-off Africans. But, the government did what ever they could to put down this struggle. They set up organizations, such as the ANC, Youth League, and others, but as seen in other places the wealthy and powerful would not help the struggle. Many people were blind to the struggle. Ã¢â¬Å"Most of these wardresses had no idea why we were in prison, and gradually began to discover what we were fighting for and why we were willing to risk jail in the first place. (249) Many individuals did not realize what the Africans were really fighting for and why the government was harassing them, but slowly they were learning. Ã¢â¬Å"Seeing prominent and educated white women discussing serious matters with a black man on the basis of perfect equality could only lead to the weakening of the wardressesÃ¢â¬ apartheid assumptions. Ã¢â¬Å"(249) The government tried to separ ate whites from blacks so whites would not turn sympathetic towards the Africans fight. This scared feeling made the government acts and laws stricter and harsher towards the African struggle. Therefore, in South Africa, the movement received little help from the people who had influence in the country and the help they truly needed. While, in China, their movement involved their peasants and they had help, which truly helped their struggle. Mao stated that Ã¢â¬Å"In a very short time,Ã¢â¬ ¦ several hundred million peasants will rise like a mighty stormÃ¢â¬ ¦ They will sweep all the imperialists, warlords, corrupt officials, local tyrants and evil gentry into their gravesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"(Mao, 24) Here Mao stated that the peasants would destroy the landlords and corrupt individuals. He helped the peasants by making some reforms. He gave peasants land and made marriages a free choice. He also instituted the 100 Flowers Campaign. This campaign allowed peasants to speak out and have freedom of speech. We see here that the peasants had help in their struggle, while the Africans had very little. This assistance helped the peasants to get the things they were fighting for. MandelaÃ¢â¬ s Long Walk to Freedom, helped show the rise of an incredible individual, who fought with many of his countrymen against the oppression and apartheid of white supremacy in South Africa. Throughout the book, I have seen NelsonÃ¢â¬ s open-mindedness. Nelson always listened to communist ideas and Indian goals, eventhough he did not agree with them. Nelson faced many hardships through his struggle and this had to cause some resentment against his oppressors. But if anyone would not be bias in his writing, I would say it would be Nelson Mandela. He has showed in his book that he is great individual and that he will not let his past feeling cloud his writing. You can see his feelings in his book and that is what makes it so good, but I believe he does not hide anything from us on both sides of the stories. In conclusion, MandelaÃ¢â¬ s autobiography is a brilliant book written by an incredible individual. I wish I could of read the whole book for this essay, but that was not possible. It is hard to write an essay on the first 5 parts when I know some things that happened further in the book. I did not know if I should include that information in the essay, but I did not involve it. This book helped to show the other side of the story. We always hear the victorÃ¢â¬ s story and in this class we got to hear the other side of the story.