Monday, February 24, 2020

Why is an understanding of research techniques important Essay

Why is an understanding of research techniques important - Essay Example Essentially, the June 2014 press release meets the requirements posted by CASRO (Council of American Research Organization) in which a study has to have a sponsor so as to support its successful completion. The director of Survey Research at Pew Research Mr. Scott Keeter explains why they chose to sample 10,000 instead of 1, 000 in which the reason is that the research was able to describe the attitudes of people in smaller fragments within the larger public. Another requirement by CASRO met in the July 2014 article by Pew Research is that it provides actual dates of when the survey was conducted are documented and also indicates the actual group that conducted the same, which in this case is the American Trends Panel, an arm created by the Pew Research Center. However, neither the press release nor the article provides the exact wording for the questions as required, hence influencing one of the shot falls on the same. Other information available as presented in the survey finding that a person reading the report would find helpful are data coding for easy interpretation of confusing data and analysis of the same. The survey also provides the data collection methods applied in order for the panelist to obtain the required attitudes of the sampled population as part of studying political polarization. In total the guidelines applied in the press release are five while one is applied in the full survey report. The media coverage of the June 2014 press release partly serves the public interest, but is somehow a political tool that politicians can use to gain popularity and win in elections. The positive trait brought about by this press release is that it helps in promoting ethnic tolerance among ethnic groups as it does not portray any of them in bad light. It also serves as a way of evaluating the stereotypes associated with certain ethnic groups and trying to work against for the good of the American population despite the religious affiliations that each

Friday, February 7, 2020

Is hosting the olympics a good investment Essay

Is hosting the olympics a good investment - Essay Example The host city becomes the centre of world attention as hosting Olympics is a serious event and requires great responsibility. Not only this, it is a highly expensive event and the host city’s economy bears the entire burden. Hosting the Olympics is debatable and many analysts argue that it provides a great boost to the city’s economy. For example, it has been estimated that London has acquired a magnanimous economic boost with the total benefit reaching up to ?41 billion by 2020 (The Huffington Post, 2013). The city hosting the event gets a chance of promoting its tourism, promotes sports and as a result the economic conditions improve over the long-term basis. Although, being a part of the Olympics’ legacy is desired by many countries but with the benefits of hosting there are certain points which are debatable and questionable. Olympic events are considered to be beneficial to the host country but experts have highlighted that there are many drawbacks associate d with the hosting of these events which should be considered. Cities go to extreme lengths to earn the privilege of hosting the Games. One of the main reasons is that the host city wants to gain a sense of popularity amongst the masses. And most of the times, Olympic Games are hosted with internal agendas. For example, the London games were hosted with the intention of bringing back to life a relatively poor existence of the capital. The Beijing Games wanted to represent the China’s improving and flourishing organisational power and spending capacity. The Tokyo 2020 games intend to boost up Japan’s monotonous economic state. However, the cities have to realise that hosting Olympics is not the same as before. The London 1948 Olympics cost ?732,268 which is equivalent to ?20 million in today’s currency rate. The Beijing Games in current times have cost an approximate of $40 billion (T. W. 2013). Hence, it should be considered by the cities which are volunteering to host Olympics, quite enthusiastically, that the trends of Olympic business has changed now. It is considered that hosting Olympics will bring a turbo-charge to the city’s economy. However an in-depth analysis reveals that this is not entirely true. Researchers have not been able to find a positive correlation between the Games and economic improvement. The city’s developers and local construction companies might benefit because of the new improvements made in the infrastructure. Moreover, the cost usually turns out to be more than it was actually bid in the first place. London bid $4-6 billion and the Games turned out to cost three times more than that amount. Recent studies also revealed that every Olympic Games between the time periods of 1960 to 2012 turned out to be more costly than planned (Fenno, 2013). The estimate of $1.6 billion made by Athens was overrun by an actual price of $16 billion. Beijing spent $40 billion. Many cities are also left in debt rather than achieving an improvement in their economies (Fenno, 2013). Olympics Games are supported by the construction of many new infrastructures which become useless or lose their worth after the Games. Many venues which were constructed in Athens and Beijing for the purpose of Olympic adventures are now propped up without any public use or support. Various specialized venues have to be built such as for mountain biking, Slalom kayaking, beach volleyball and shooting ranges (Fenno, 2013). Twenty one out of the 33 stadiums, sport halls, arenas and

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Social interaction Essay Example for Free

Social interaction Essay Stereotyping may lead to prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is to pre-judge a person or a group of people in a certain way before you get to know the facts. For example in the case of Ms Brown she may feel prejudice towards the people of the new neighbourhood. She does not know them and may judge them all in one way. Categorise all as one instead of seeing individuals. Discrimination is to act on that judgement. In Ms Browns case she may feel prejudice to the natives of the new neighbourhood. They have different life styles which could cause slight conflict between them. What Ms Brown believes to be the right way of life, the people in the neighbourhood may disagree. Prejudice could occur. In order for Ms Brown to discriminate against her new neighbours she must act on that prejudice. Ms Brown may experience frustration when moving house. This could be due to several reasons. Although been a lone parent was Ms Browns choice it may make life difficult at this moment in time as she has the move to do alone. Whilst frustration and aggression are related, frustration does not always lead to aggression. Gross R et al (2000:67) Aggression can be reinforced where as frustration is a natural emotion. Aggressive behaviour can be aroused by other aspects then frustration. How could this effect Ms Browns situation. Elliott in 1977 conducted a study with a class room of children. The aim was to show the children how it felt to be discriminated against. Elliott told the children that pupils with blue eyes were inferior. Within days the experiment showed the children with blue eyes had become withdrawn and school work slipped, whereas the children with brown eyes became more and more aggressive towards blue eyed children. This experiment shows how easy it can be to discriminate against others and how aggression can occur. Ms Brown may have been raised in a racist family; her parents could have reinforced the prejudice towards black people. Social learning theory suggests that behaviour is learned. People are not born aggressive; they adapt aggression through direct experience or by observing others. In reference to M Cardwell et al Psychology for A2 Level Bandura conducted an experiment also involving children. Using a blow up doll, some of the children were exposed to adults behaving aggressive towards the doll. The bobo doll experiment showed that children copied the behaviour of adults. Those who witnessed aggressive behaviour toward the doll carried out similar aggressive acts. Whereas the children who were not exposed to the violence on the doll were not aggressive towards it. This experiment suggests that, people will copy behaviour. Is aggression learned? The social learning theory is contradicted by the Relative Deprivation Theory. This can be explained as, what we believe to be the standard we should receive and the standard we actually get. Moving house is hard work and stressful, things do not always go as planned. Ms Brown may become frustrated with the situation. An experiment conducted by Sherif in 1961, involved a group of eleven and twelve year olds. The children were divided into two groups and housed separately. As a result they became close friends and found a sense of identity within that group. The two groups were brought back together and after several competitions between them they acted very negatively towards each other. Each group felt as though they deserved to win the competitions more than the others. If people feel deprived of something to which they feel entitled, they become frustrated and perhaps aggressive. the Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866; just after the American civil war it attracted mainly poor whites who believed that their livelihood was threatened by the newly freed black slaves. Gross R et al (2000:25) In the case of the ku Klux klan it eventually lead to murdering black people for no reason other than the feeling that maybe white people were been deprived of something because of black people. In 1992, a riot broke out in Los Angeles; it claimed more the 50 lives. The reason behind the riots was the acquittal by an all white jury of four police men who had been accused of badly beating a black motorist. If the police men had received punishment for their actions then the black society would not have felt deprived of justice, then the riots would not have occurred. A sense of perceived relative deprivation can also come about as a result of improvement in the recourses and opportunities made available to a group.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Medical Marijuana and the future of legalization in Massachusetts :: Drugs Medicine Essays

Medical Marijuana and the future of legalization in Massachusetts Fran Cuhtahlatah, a 55-year-old woman from Washington state, smokes marijuana to help alleviate intense pain in her feet, legs and mid-spine due to arthritis. According to Cuhtahlatah, the pain in her spine feels like being beaten across her back with a baseball bat. Cuhtahlatah said her arthritis was caused from strenuous work environments including a job at a frozen food plant. â€Å"My doctor said that she has seen a lot of people with the similar kind of spinal arthritis of people who worked in a frozen food plant,† said Cuhtahlatah. â€Å"I couldn’t look for work. I couldn’t work. I had to almost re-accommodate myself to my own home. Everything I do now takes longer. Things I could do in three or four hours now takes eight,† said Cuhtahlatah. Cuhtahlatah lives on very limited supply of funds. The social security office, where she gets her food and medical stamps, are cutting her monthly allotment. Within a month, Cuhtahlatah must live on less than $600 a month. She has $78 taken away from her income because of Medicare premiums. In addition, she only receives $76 for food. She is also limited on the places where she can receive medical care. Doctors who accept medical stamps from the government are the only doctors that can help her. Sometimes she must wait several months in order to obtain an appointment. â€Å"I did a lot of social service activities on the food stamp rules and regulations. I started a couple of statewide food stamp networks. Educating legislatures of the effects of what this is,† said Cuhtahlatah. Cuhtahlatah does not drive a car. In order to get anywhere she needs to find a ride or walk. When she walks, the closest town is a mile or two away and she says she must rest for a day and a half after because of the immense pain. â€Å"I’ve tried numerous arthritis medications,† said Cuhtahlatah. â€Å"I am always afraid when I purchase [marijuana] that I could lose my home. I am afraid to even almost grow my own because I was arrested a long time ago.† Cuhtahlatah says that it is a good she owns her own home because otherwise she would be out on the street with nowhere to live. â€Å"I feel that state’s rights are being trampled on by the federal government, and that the federal government should butt out,† said Cuhtahlatah. Cuhtahlatah would like to see marijuana confiscated by drug dealers be brought to the health department so that ill patients can benefit from the medication.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Why Gsm Tech Is More Preferred Than Cdma Tech in Yemen

Research Proposal Why GSM Tech is more preferred than CDMA Tech in Yemen Prepared by: Khaled Al-Gahuri Prepared for: Dr. Murad Al-Nashmy Acknowledgement I am honored to prepare this research paper which titled â€Å"Why GSM Tech is more preferred than CDMA Tech in Yemen†. And I would like to pay my special thanks to Dr. Murad Abstract The cellular industry is in Yemen dominated by two technologies – Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).This paper will provide an overview of the two different technologies and will focus on why people in Yemen preferred to use the GSM technology rather than CDM technology A even though CDMA technology introduced after GSM with a more privileges. 1 Table of Content ? ? Acknowledgement †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1 Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1 ? Chapter 1: Introduction —————————————–? ? ? ? ? Background †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 Problem†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 Objectives†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Significance of the Study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Scope of study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4 ? Chapter 2: Literature Review ——————————————? ? ? ? ? Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 Consumer Choice†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 Perceived Service Quality†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Choice of Handset†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 Hypothesis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 ? Chapter 3: Methodology ——————————————? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Research Deign †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 8 Framework†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Population And Sampling†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Data Collection†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Data Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 Time Schedule†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 15 2 Chapter 1 Background Introduction The mobile indust ry in Yemen is divided between the two technologies GSM and CDMA. While the earlier service providers had adopted the GSM technology, the new players have been using CDMA technology has notched up a significant share of the Yemen market.The number of subscriber’s mobile industry has increased significantly since 2001. The first company lunched in Yemen introduced the GSM technology which was the only choose for Yemenis people to grant, but in 2005 other company has been lunched by the government introduced the CDMA technology which provide a better services for the clients with privileges to overcome the GSM technology. After around five years a big number of people have subscribed with CDMA, but GSM was still demonstrated the market with a bigger number of subscribers until nowadays.It is necessary for us to understand the basic differentiation of the two technologies as they may have an impact on the subscribers. GSM stand for Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the leading digital cellular systems. It uses narrow band TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.GSM was first introduced in 1991. As of the end of 1997, GSM service was available in more than 100 countries and has become the de facto standard in Europe and Asia. CDMA stand for Code-Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to conn ect at any given time, and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. 3 Problem Statement The tendency of choosing The GSM technology over the CDMA in Yemen is very obvious. Thus, there is a need to identify the factors that can influence the choice patterns of either GSM technology or CDMA technology as well as why consumers prefer to choose GSM rather than CDMA even though CDMA is has more privileges and uses advanced techniques.Objectives Our main objectives of this study are as following: To identify and analyze the factors that can influence the choice patterns of either GSM technology or CDMA technology. To investigate the relationship between those factors. To find out why GSM is more preferred than CDMA. Significance of the Study This research will help to recognize the factors that lead to the lack of use CDMA technology in Yemen as well as this study can contribute to the body of knowledge by examining the different variables and implement them. Scope of study The scope of this study is basically limited to the consumers o the mobile industry in Yemen. 4 Chapter 2 Introduction Literature Review This chapter will bring a clear idea about the factors that can influence consumer choice such as perceived services quality, choice of handset as well as international roaming and their relationship. In addition some previous researches will be included. Consumer Choice The GSM Association is an international organization founded in 1987, dedicated to providing, developing, and overseeing the worldwide wireless standard of GSM. CDMA was established earlier and thus has a bit more coverage than GSM.However GSM networks continue to make inroads in Yemen. There are camps on both sides that firmly believe either GSM or CDMA architecture is superior to the other, Richard (2009) stated that there is no clear winner in the CDMA and GSM it all depends on your needs. There are many factors that could influence on consumer choice patterns, different factors have different influence on consumer, and these factors should be taken into consideration in order to formulate consumer choice patterns. Mobile sector must focus on customer satisfaction as serious marketing strategies (Lim, and Widdows, 2006).Nadine (2001) examined that attitude of the respondents using cell phones was not influenced by either education or occupation and income. Haque (2007) suggested that coverage, service quality, data transfer speed, and choice of handset play a main role during the time to choose either GSM or CDMA technology. Chris (2006) noted that in recent years the telecommunications market has witnessed major developments, with rapid expansion in access to telecommunications networks and a surge in the number of available services and applications.While many factors have contributed to the transformation of the telecommunications industry, competition has played a key role in driving telecom industry to develop new techniques, to innovate and to offer new services. 5 With the advent of cellular phones doing double and triple duty as streaming video devices, podcast receivers and email devices, Simon (2007) Stated that speed in data transfer is important to those who use the phone for more than making calls. Other thing advertisement can take a place when choosing technology Kalpana (2006) found that advertisement play a dominant role in influencing the customers.Perceived Service Quality Perceived service quality defined as a global judgment or attitude relating to the superiority of the service and it’s the rank to which the technology provides key customer requirement and how reliable those requirement are delivered(NQRC,2001). Basically consumers are adapted to the services that either GSM or CDMA could provide Kumar (2005), in his study analyzed that, services plays a major role in the telecom industry are the most active and attractive.In addition the quality of service is a driving of choice Seth et al (2006), in his study analyzed that there is relative importance of service quality attributes and showed that responsiveness is the most importance dimension followed by reliability, customer perceived network quality, assurance, convenience. The development of a reliable and valid instrument for assessing customer perceived service quality for cellular mobile services. (Backlund and Holmqvist, 2006) pointed that customer choice is achieved through good qualitative and quantitative services.Customer choice normally can indicate to customer response to the state of satisfaction and customer opinion of satisfied condition (Oliver, 2003). Palkar (2004) proposed that perceived services is an important factor that has greater influence on costumer choice. (Serkan 2005) determined that the balance of power between service quality and customer satisfaction with an emphasis on these two constructs is the concept that is different from the view of customer. Zeithaml and Bitner, 2002, indicated that both service quality and customer satisfaction have some things in common.Furthermore, Fornell et. al. ,(1998) reported that satisfaction is a consequence of service quality. 6 Choice of handset Liu (2002) found that the choice of a cellular phone is characterized by two attitudes: attitude towards the mobile phone brand on one hand and attitude towards the network on the other. Samuvel (2002) observed that most of the respondents consider coverage area, quality of services are an important factors for selecting the either GSM or CDMA while majority of the respondents are considered that choice if handset is the most important factor.Kalus stated that If you travel a lot to foreign countries, then GSM phone is better for you. Also santos(2006) indicated that GSM phones work more widely across the world than do CDMA models. International Roaming This is when you connect to an overseas network and calls are routed via that network provider instead of your home provider. Johson(2002) defined roaming as extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network, without losing the connection.Roaming allows mobile wireless customers to automatically make and receive voice calls, send and receive data, or access other services, including home data services when they are outside of the area covered by their provider's network regardless of their location. Forneil(2004) stated that roaming plays a major role in the quality of GSM/CDMA technology, Susan J. Campbell (2007) stated that there are number of different technology trends, but most significant is the rise of mobile roaming.Hypotheses The Hypotheses are developed based on Literature Review mentioned earlier to describe the relationship among these variables that influence on consumer choice. H1: There is positive/significant relationship between perceived services quality an d consumer choice. H2: There is positive/significant relationship between international roaming and consumer choice. H3: There is positive/significant relationship between the choice of handset and consumer choice. 7 Chapter 3 Methodology ————————————————————————————————————————-Source of Data The study undertaken to be mainly based on the primary data and secondary data. The primary data is collected directly from the target respondents through tructured questionnaire and personal interview. The secondary data for the study is collected from different sources such as technical and trade journals, articles, newspapers, magazines, internet, books, reports. RESEARCH DESIGN First and the most important phase in determining method of this research is designing phase. This phase should be given serious attention to make sure that the research can be done without mistakes.Designing includes choosing the best method for collecting, measuring, analyzing data. Quantitative method such as survey method has been used for collection data. Research Framework Perceive service quality Choice of Handset Choice of Technology International Roaming 8 Population and Sampling Research The population of this study is all the consumers who has cellular phone which a huge amount of number, in this case we use Exploratory and Random sampling to analyze data. ? Data Collection The data is collected randomly irrespective of the category of the people in the form of questionnaire and the sample size is 100 respondents.Because it is a pilot study and due to time constraint the sample size is small. ? Data Analysis From the questionnaires we have distributed we got the following results: Q1) which technology do you use? Technology GSM CDMA No. of respondents 78 22 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 GSM CDMA 9 Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that majority of the consumers that is approximately 78% are covered by GSM technology. Based on this result we trying to know why GSM is more preferred. Q2) Overall, how would you rate you both technologies? GSM CDMA EXCELLENT GOOD 40 25 18 22AVERAGE 13 20 FAIR 10 20 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 excellent Good Avg Fair GSM CDMA Interpretation: From the graphic it depict that GSM is the most excellent technology. 10 Q3) Rank the following factors which influenced you the most: Roaming QoS Choice of handset 92 8 DATA SPEED 32 68 Range of coverage 41 59 GSM CDMA 67 22 62 38 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 roaming Service handset coverage GSM CDMA Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that GSM is being preferred because of its services, the choice of handset and the strength of roaming. WhereCDMA is preferred because of its good range of coverage. 11 Q4) Rank the following Service which attracted you the most for tour choice either GSM or CDMA Brand GSM CDMA SMS Pack 60 40 Call rate 45 65 Internet 70 30 Other 67 33 70 60 50 40 GSM 30 20 10 0 SMS call rate Internet other CDMA Interpretation: from chart above it shows that GSM is more preferred from because of its aspects of the services. Where CDMA is preferred because of its call rate. 12 Q5) How satisfied are you with your choice of GSM/CDMA technology? Brand GSM CDMA Very satisfied 35 20 satisfied 60 30 Neutral 0 15 issatisfied 0 0 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 very satisfied satisfied Neutral dissatisfied GSM CDMA Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that the satisfaction rate of technology is leaded by GSM as not a single user of service is neutral or dissatisfy. In other hand CDMA seems to be good satisfied with zero dissatisfies but there are around 15 respondents who are neutral. 13 Conclusion As per my analysis I noticed that the main factors that makes GSM technology more prefe rred are the mobile choice of handset and the quality of service regardless the range of coverage and the price rate.Other thing I noticed that are the mobile choice of handset and the value of service has a strong relationship Conclusion of the topic is that maturity of customers is using GSM technology because of its good network roaming availability and quality of services and the wide choice of handset. Mostly customers have considered GSM is one of the best services provided in Yemen because other factors and efficient services. ? Time Schedule 15th February, 2012 Data Collection Problem Statement & Objectives Literature Review Methodology Whole report 30th February , 2012 13th March, 20th March, 2012 2012 1 April, 2012 ? ? ? ? 14 ? References 1. Jallet, Frederic, intelecommunications†,(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do; jsessionid=236E2B6B45CF101465D540FD4401AEB9? 2. Debnath, Roma Mitra, â€Å"Benchmarking telecommunication service in Indiaâ₠¬ , 2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=236E2 B6B45CF101465D540FD4401AEB 3 Robins, Fread, â€Å"The marketing of 3G†, vol 21, no 6, 2008 http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=236E2B6B45 CF101465D540FD4401AEB9? 4. Kalwani, Banumathy, â€Å"Consumer’s Attitude towards Cell phone Services†, 2006 . Fernandez, Fronnie, Understanding Dynamics in an Evolving 2007(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=208652 7F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F658? 6. Seth et, Etal, â€Å"Managing the Customer Perceived Service Quality for Cellular MobileTelephone: an Empirical Investigation†, 2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=208652 7F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F658? 7. Tecor, Jha, Understanding Mobile Phone Usage Pattern among CollegeGoers†,2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid= 2086527F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F 658? 15

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Financial System And Economic Development - 1001 Words

In a developing country, such as Egypt, misuse and/or lack of foreign exchange is a main constraint to investment and economic growth, as foreign exchange is necessary to obtain foreign intermediate and capital goods. In addition, lack of foreign exchange results in devaluation of the Egyptian pound, which considered the main cause of inflation in the Egyptian economy. 4. Financial System and Economic Development Goals This section examines the efficiency by which the Egyptian financial system allocates and directs savings to achieve economic development goals. 4.1Efficiency of Utilizing Savings As mentioned before, carrying-out investments is the cornerstone of any economic development process. While savings are the main resources in the process of carrying-out investments, then it is useful to measure the efficiency of utilizing savings (the ability of savings to carry-out investments). In this context, savings are considered inputs while investment spending is considered the output in the process of carrying-out investments. A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology will be used to estimate the investment spending (output) frontier for the purpose of calculating the efficiency of utilizing savings (input) (Coelli T. J, 1996). Appendix (3) illustrates the results of output-orientated DEA for the production of single output (investment spending) using a single input (savings). The analysis shows three concepts of efficiency: Over all technical efficiency, pureShow MoreRelatedThe Economic Development Of The Financial System Essay2086 Words   |  9 PagesINTRODUCTION The economic development of most of the countries depends upon the efficiency of a well organized financial system. 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