Monday, January 13, 2020
Research Proposal Why GSM Tech is more preferred than CDMA Tech in Yemen Prepared by: Khaled Al-Gahuri Prepared for: Dr. Murad Al-Nashmy Acknowledgement I am honored to prepare this research paper which titled Ã¢â¬Å"Why GSM Tech is more preferred than CDMA Tech in YemenÃ¢â¬ . And I would like to pay my special thanks to Dr. Murad Abstract The cellular industry is in Yemen dominated by two technologies Ã¢â¬â Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).This paper will provide an overview of the two different technologies and will focus on why people in Yemen preferred to use the GSM technology rather than CDM technology A even though CDMA technology introduced after GSM with a more privileges. 1 Table of Content ? ? Acknowledgement Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 1 AbstractÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢ â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1 ? Chapter 1: Introduction Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â? ? ? ? ? Background Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 ProblemÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦4 ObjectivesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Significance of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 Scope of studyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 4 ? Chapter 2: Literature Review Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â? ? ? ? ? IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 5 Consumer ChoiceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 5 Perceived Service QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 6 Choice of HandsetÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 Hypothesis Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 ? Chapter 3: Methodology Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Research Deign Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 8 FrameworkÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Population And SamplingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦9 Data CollectionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦9 Data Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 10 Time ScheduleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦14 Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦15 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 15 2 Chapter 1 Background Introduction The mobile indust ry in Yemen is divided between the two technologies GSM and CDMA. While the earlier service providers had adopted the GSM technology, the new players have been using CDMA technology has notched up a significant share of the Yemen market.The number of subscriberÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile industry has increased significantly since 2001. The first company lunched in Yemen introduced the GSM technology which was the only choose for Yemenis people to grant, but in 2005 other company has been lunched by the government introduced the CDMA technology which provide a better services for the clients with privileges to overcome the GSM technology. After around five years a big number of people have subscribed with CDMA, but GSM was still demonstrated the market with a bigger number of subscribers until nowadays.It is necessary for us to understand the basic differentiation of the two technologies as they may have an impact on the subscribers. GSM stand for Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the leading digital cellular systems. It uses narrow band TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.GSM was first introduced in 1991. As of the end of 1997, GSM service was available in more than 100 countries and has become the de facto standard in Europe and Asia. CDMA stand for Code-Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to conn ect at any given time, and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. 3 Problem Statement The tendency of choosing The GSM technology over the CDMA in Yemen is very obvious. Thus, there is a need to identify the factors that can influence the choice patterns of either GSM technology or CDMA technology as well as why consumers prefer to choose GSM rather than CDMA even though CDMA is has more privileges and uses advanced techniques.Objectives Our main objectives of this study are as following: To identify and analyze the factors that can influence the choice patterns of either GSM technology or CDMA technology. To investigate the relationship between those factors. To find out why GSM is more preferred than CDMA. Significance of the Study This research will help to recognize the factors that lead to the lack of use CDMA technology in Yemen as well as this study can contribute to the body of knowledge by examining the different variables and implement them. Scope of study The scope of this study is basically limited to the consumers o the mobile industry in Yemen. 4 Chapter 2 Introduction Literature Review This chapter will bring a clear idea about the factors that can influence consumer choice such as perceived services quality, choice of handset as well as international roaming and their relationship. In addition some previous researches will be included. Consumer Choice The GSM Association is an international organization founded in 1987, dedicated to providing, developing, and overseeing the worldwide wireless standard of GSM. CDMA was established earlier and thus has a bit more coverage than GSM.However GSM networks continue to make inroads in Yemen. There are camps on both sides that firmly believe either GSM or CDMA architecture is superior to the other, Richard (2009) stated that there is no clear winner in the CDMA and GSM it all depends on your needs. There are many factors that could influence on consumer choice patterns, different factors have different influence on consumer, and these factors should be taken into consideration in order to formulate consumer choice patterns. Mobile sector must focus on customer satisfaction as serious marketing strategies (Lim, and Widdows, 2006).Nadine (2001) examined that attitude of the respondents using cell phones was not influenced by either education or occupation and income. Haque (2007) suggested that coverage, service quality, data transfer speed, and choice of handset play a main role during the time to choose either GSM or CDMA technology. Chris (2006) noted that in recent years the telecommunications market has witnessed major developments, with rapid expansion in access to telecommunications networks and a surge in the number of available services and applications.While many factors have contributed to the transformation of the telecommunications industry, competition has played a key role in driving telecom industry to develop new techniques, to innovate and to offer new services. 5 With the advent of cellular phones doing double and triple duty as streaming video devices, podcast receivers and email devices, Simon (2007) Stated that speed in data transfer is important to those who use the phone for more than making calls. Other thing advertisement can take a place when choosing technology Kalpana (2006) found that advertisement play a dominant role in influencing the customers.Perceived Service Quality Perceived service quality defined as a global judgment or attitude relating to the superiority of the service and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the rank to which the technology provides key customer requirement and how reliable those requirement are delivered(NQRC,2001). Basically consumers are adapted to the services that either GSM or CDMA could provide Kumar (2005), in his study analyzed that, services plays a major role in the telecom industry are the most active and attractive.In addition the quality of service is a driving of choice Seth et al (2006), in his study analyzed that there is relative importance of service quality attributes and showed that responsiveness is the most importance dimension followed by reliability, customer perceived network quality, assurance, convenience. The development of a reliable and valid instrument for assessing customer perceived service quality for cellular mobile services. (Backlund and Holmqvist, 2006) pointed that customer choice is achieved through good qualitative and quantitative services.Customer choice normally can indicate to customer response to the state of satisfaction and customer opinion of satisfied condition (Oliver, 2003). Palkar (2004) proposed that perceived services is an important factor that has greater influence on costumer choice. (Serkan 2005) determined that the balance of power between service quality and customer satisfaction with an emphasis on these two constructs is the concept that is different from the view of customer. Zeithaml and Bitner, 2002, indicated that both service quality and customer satisfaction have some things in common.Furthermore, Fornell et. al. ,(1998) reported that satisfaction is a consequence of service quality. 6 Choice of handset Liu (2002) found that the choice of a cellular phone is characterized by two attitudes: attitude towards the mobile phone brand on one hand and attitude towards the network on the other. Samuvel (2002) observed that most of the respondents consider coverage area, quality of services are an important factors for selecting the either GSM or CDMA while majority of the respondents are considered that choice if handset is the most important factor.Kalus stated that If you travel a lot to foreign countries, then GSM phone is better for you. Also santos(2006) indicated that GSM phones work more widely across the world than do CDMA models. International Roaming This is when you connect to an overseas network and calls are routed via that network provider instead of your home provider. Johson(2002) defined roaming as extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network, without losing the connection.Roaming allows mobile wireless customers to automatically make and receive voice calls, send and receive data, or access other services, including home data services when they are outside of the area covered by their provider's network regardless of their location. Forneil(2004) stated that roaming plays a major role in the quality of GSM/CDMA technology, Susan J. Campbell (2007) stated that there are number of different technology trends, but most significant is the rise of mobile roaming.Hypotheses The Hypotheses are developed based on Literature Review mentioned earlier to describe the relationship among these variables that influence on consumer choice. H1: There is positive/significant relationship between perceived services quality an d consumer choice. H2: There is positive/significant relationship between international roaming and consumer choice. H3: There is positive/significant relationship between the choice of handset and consumer choice. 7 Chapter 3 Methodology Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Source of Data The study undertaken to be mainly based on the primary data and secondary data. The primary data is collected directly from the target respondents through tructured questionnaire and personal interview. The secondary data for the study is collected from different sources such as technical and trade journals, articles, newspapers, magazines, internet, books, reports. RESEARCH DESIGN First and the most important phase in determining method of this research is designing phase. This phase should be given serious attention to make sure that the research can be done without mistakes.Designing includes choosing the best method for collecting, measuring, analyzing data. Quantitative method such as survey method has been used for collection data. Research Framework Perceive service quality Choice of Handset Choice of Technology International Roaming 8 Population and Sampling Research The population of this study is all the consumers who has cellular phone which a huge amount of number, in this case we use Exploratory and Random sampling to analyze data. ? Data Collection The data is collected randomly irrespective of the category of the people in the form of questionnaire and the sample size is 100 respondents.Because it is a pilot study and due to time constraint the sample size is small. ? Data Analysis From the questionnaires we have distributed we got the following results: Q1) which technology do you use? Technology GSM CDMA No. of respondents 78 22 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 GSM CDMA 9 Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that majority of the consumers that is approximately 78% are covered by GSM technology. Based on this result we trying to know why GSM is more preferred. Q2) Overall, how would you rate you both technologies? GSM CDMA EXCELLENT GOOD 40 25 18 22AVERAGE 13 20 FAIR 10 20 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 excellent Good Avg Fair GSM CDMA Interpretation: From the graphic it depict that GSM is the most excellent technology. 10 Q3) Rank the following factors which influenced you the most: Roaming QoS Choice of handset 92 8 DATA SPEED 32 68 Range of coverage 41 59 GSM CDMA 67 22 62 38 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 roaming Service handset coverage GSM CDMA Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that GSM is being preferred because of its services, the choice of handset and the strength of roaming. WhereCDMA is preferred because of its good range of coverage. 11 Q4) Rank the following Service which attracted you the most for tour choice either GSM or CDMA Brand GSM CDMA SMS Pack 60 40 Call rate 45 65 Internet 70 30 Other 67 33 70 60 50 40 GSM 30 20 10 0 SMS call rate Internet other CDMA Interpretation: from chart above it shows that GSM is more preferred from because of its aspects of the services. Where CDMA is preferred because of its call rate. 12 Q5) How satisfied are you with your choice of GSM/CDMA technology? Brand GSM CDMA Very satisfied 35 20 satisfied 60 30 Neutral 0 15 issatisfied 0 0 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 very satisfied satisfied Neutral dissatisfied GSM CDMA Interpretation: Above data analysis shows that the satisfaction rate of technology is leaded by GSM as not a single user of service is neutral or dissatisfy. In other hand CDMA seems to be good satisfied with zero dissatisfies but there are around 15 respondents who are neutral. 13 Conclusion As per my analysis I noticed that the main factors that makes GSM technology more prefe rred are the mobile choice of handset and the quality of service regardless the range of coverage and the price rate.Other thing I noticed that are the mobile choice of handset and the value of service has a strong relationship Conclusion of the topic is that maturity of customers is using GSM technology because of its good network roaming availability and quality of services and the wide choice of handset. Mostly customers have considered GSM is one of the best services provided in Yemen because other factors and efficient services. ? Time Schedule 15th February, 2012 Data Collection Problem Statement & Objectives Literature Review Methodology Whole report 30th February , 2012 13th March, 20th March, 2012 2012 1 April, 2012 ? ? ? ? 14 ? References 1. Jallet, Frederic, intelecommunicationsÃ¢â¬ ,(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do; jsessionid=236E2B6B45CF101465D540FD4401AEB9? 2. Debnath, Roma Mitra, Ã¢â¬Å"Benchmarking telecommunication service in IndiaÃ¢â ¬ , 2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=236E2 B6B45CF101465D540FD4401AEB 3 Robins, Fread, Ã¢â¬Å"The marketing of 3GÃ¢â¬ , vol 21, no 6, 2008 http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=236E2B6B45 CF101465D540FD4401AEB9? 4. Kalwani, Banumathy, Ã¢â¬Å"ConsumerÃ¢â¬â¢s Attitude towards Cell phone ServicesÃ¢â¬ , 2006 . Fernandez, Fronnie, Understanding Dynamics in an Evolving 2007(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=208652 7F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F658? 6. Seth et, Etal, Ã¢â¬Å"Managing the Customer Perceived Service Quality for Cellular MobileTelephone: an Empirical InvestigationÃ¢â¬ , 2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=208652 7F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F658? 7. Tecor, Jha, Understanding Mobile Phone Usage Pattern among CollegeGoersÃ¢â¬ ,2008(http://www. emeraldinsight. com/Insight/viewContentItem. do;jsessionid= 2086527F0757A565F9A6CBAC8800F 658? 15
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In a developing country, such as Egypt, misuse and/or lack of foreign exchange is a main constraint to investment and economic growth, as foreign exchange is necessary to obtain foreign intermediate and capital goods. In addition, lack of foreign exchange results in devaluation of the Egyptian pound, which considered the main cause of inflation in the Egyptian economy. 4. Financial System and Economic Development Goals This section examines the efficiency by which the Egyptian financial system allocates and directs savings to achieve economic development goals. 4.1Efficiency of Utilizing Savings As mentioned before, carrying-out investments is the cornerstone of any economic development process. While savings are the main resources in the process of carrying-out investments, then it is useful to measure the efficiency of utilizing savings (the ability of savings to carry-out investments). 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Literature Review Economists hold different opinions regarding the role of finance in economic growth andRead MoreAccounting Systems At The International Level1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesone of the oldest social sciences disciplines whose development has been affected by a variety of historical, economic, social-cultural and institutional factors. In essence, although the discipline is currently harmonized across different nations, accounting systems have been influenced by different national traits, a factor that also influenced the differences in accounting systems at the international level. In general, the accounting systems in use in different countries have developed as a resultRead MoreAccounting and the Development of Society1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Accounting and the Development of Society: Accounting can be described as a field that focuses on collecting, evaluating, and communicating financial or economic information. The contribution of accounting in the development of the society can be understood through evaluating the concept from a social rather than economic perspective. In this case, the society emanates from the established relationships by individuals in order to coexist with each other. Generally, a society is classified intoRead MoreEconomic Growth and Development1547 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH Economic development and growth may not be the same thing depending on how growth rate is affecting the countrys socio-economic development. However important and well known theories of macro-economic suggest that if markets are left on their own, people will improve their socio-economic wellbeing automatically as the result of better economic growth rate of the country. In other words, financial liberalization automatically leads to socio-economic uplift as suggestedRead MoreRole of Commercial Bank in Economic Development in India1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Every country needs the services of financial institutions for accelerating the pace of development. Commercial banks have played a critical role in the economic development of a country. Now a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial banks are important not just from the point of view of economic growth, but also financial stability. In emerging economies, commercial banks are special for three important reasons. First, they take a leading ro le in developing other financial intermediaries and markets. Second, due to
Friday, December 27, 2019
Silver Linings playbook Character Assessment The serious effects of mental illness in America have been captured brilliantly in numerous different modern day films. Silver Linings Playbook, a film directed by David Russell, follows a frustrated love story of two mentally unstable individuals. Pat Solitan, played by Bradley Cooper, is a middle aged white adult who is recovering from a failed marriage, and has just recently returned from an eight-month stay in a psychiatric hospital after attacking his ex-wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s new lover. He returns home to his parentÃ¢â¬â¢s house in the suburbs of Philadelphia, where he meets Tiffany Maxwell, played by Jennifer Lawrence. Tiffany is a young, widowed white woman who has recently lost her job and has moved back in with her parents who live in the same neighborhood as the SolitanoÃ¢â¬â¢s. The two individuals meet one night at a dinner party, and automatically click over a lighthearted dialoged about the numerous anti-psychotics that they have been placed on. Both Pat and Tiffany dis play abnormal behavior throughout the film. Their journey of dealing with their mental abnormalities is at times heart-breaking, but they are able to use one another as a support system in order to get their mental conditions under control. The two individuals display unique behaviors and personality traits that can be analyzed to meet criteria in the DSM-5 for mental disorders. It can be interpreted from the film that Pat has Bipolar Disorder, and that Tiffany hasShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Silver Lining Playbook Directed By David O. Russell1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSilver Lining Playbook Review In the film Silver Lining Playbook, directed by David O. Russell and starring Bradley Cooper and Jennifer Lawrence, a character by the name of Pat Solatano Jr. is introduced with the bipolar disorder. Throughout the film Pat goes through life trying to deal with all the ebbs and flows that come his way, all while trying to keep his disorder in check. Have it being his interactions with family and friends, or the way he handles simple misfortunes or disagreements canRead MoreI Am A Sign Of Bipolar Disorder2137 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesrelationship with their peers, ability to work, get an education, and function normally with a balanced mood (Bipolar Disorder,n.d). Bradley Cooper plays a middle-aged man, Patrick Solitano, who suffers from Bipolar Disorder in the movieSilver Linings Playbook. Pat went through many obstacles after a trigger set him off into a rage that landed him at a mental institution for eight months. He spent his life thinking that he just has a short fuse like his fa ther, but later into his adulthood he was diagnosedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Silver Linings Playbook 1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the movie Silver Linings Playbook, Bradley Cooper plays the main character Pat Solitano Jr. The movie starts off with Pat being released from a psychiatric facility. PatÃ¢â¬â¢s time spent in the psychiatric facility was a plea bargain that his lawyer advised him to make. The court only mandated eight months of inpatient time, and against the will of the doctors in the facility, his mother is discharging him because she thinks that eight months is sufficient time for Pat to become well. On the driveRead MoreThes Diagnosis Of Bipolar Disorder1912 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDiagnostic Assessment: Silver Linings PlaybookÃ¢â¬â¢s main character appears to be your average man. He comes off as one who may have a steady job that provides him with a reasonable salary, a wife, and possibly a growing family. However, this is only the opinion of someone who has not seen the struggles he deals with daily. After researching through resources such as The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and other scholarly journals, it is evident that PatRead MoreDr. Doe s Disorder1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMr. Doe suffers from undiagnosed bipolar disorder, which results in mood swings with stern thoughts brought on by severe stress. John Doe returns home with his parents after being released from an institution and forced to continue therapy. The assessment will look into John DoeÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder through the psychologists six theoretical models. Number one of the theoretical model is the biological model. According to Comer, the biological model looks at the biological processes of human functioning toRead MoreAnalysis : Silver Linings Playbook1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCassidy Malchow PSYC 275 Dr. Jones Assessment Summary Paper Film: Ã¢â¬Å"Silver Linings PlaybookÃ¢â¬ Identifying Information Patrick Solitano Jr., better known as Pat, is a white male of about 35 years of age who has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and is undergoing treatment. He was released from a mandatory hospitalization in a detention facility after eight months on the premise that he would continue taking medication, attend therapy, and comply with his restraining orders. He was also assigned
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Life is a Poem Ã¢â¬Å"Life is like the stanzas of a poem.Ã¢â¬ Anne Sexton is unlike any other poets, her life, not only influences her poems, but her poems are part of her life. Briar Rose (Sleeping Beauty), Baby picture, and Music Swims Back To Me are three examples in which sexton describes her life as poems. The troubled childhood and the depressed adulthood of Anne Sexton lead to the depressed and dark nature of her writing. Trauma from the abused childhood brought about the depressed nature of her poems. In Briar Rose (Sleeping Beauty), Anne sexton describes the troubled nature of her childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"I was forced backward. I was forced forward.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Each night I am nailed into place.Ã¢â¬ (st.7,line 5-7.9) That feeling of being forced and helpless. Being drained of life by the one who was supposed to keep her safe cannot be forgotten, if we try to ignore the feeling it will just eat you inside. Sexton unlike others did not try to forget it but embraced it into her poems as a way of treating her depression. She said it aloud to the world in the form of her poems. This depression took the form of words and is an important element of sextonÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Like in the first stanza when Sexton was hypnotized and taken when she was 2, and then to the seemingly loving sound of her father: Ã¢â¬Å"Little doll child, come here to Papa. Sit on my knee. I have kisses for the back of your neck.Ã¢â¬ (st.1, line 15-19) But the meaning becomes very clear as the poem progresses. Although, SextonÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry is mainly sad andShow MoreRelatedLady Lazarus, by Sylvia Plath1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Lady LazarusÃ¢â¬ is a poem by Sylvia Plath, written in 1962 shortly before her death in early 1963, and published posthumously by her husband, poet Ted Hughes, in 1965 in the collected volume Ariel. Ã¢â¬Å"Lady LazarusÃ¢â¬ is a poem about suicide as a rebirth, and was in part inspired by Plaths own life and draws heavily on Plaths lifelong struggle with bipolar depression and suicidal feelings, and uses holocaust imagery to paint a bleak portrait of suicide and hopelessness. Sylvia Plath was born in BostonRead MoreAn Analysis of the Poem Novel by Arthur Rimbaud1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ An Analysis of Novel, a Poem by Arthur Rimbaud Arthur Rimbaud, a French poet, wrote the poem Novel in 1870, just prior to his sixteenth birthday. The poem is divided in four parts with eight stanzas (two stanzas each part). Each stanza contains four lines. The poem appears to be a reflection on the wonders of youth, when the world is all new. The title may be interpreted as a reference to life as a novel experience. The poem looks with innocent eyes at youthful affection, and youthful commitmentRead MoreEmily Dickinson s Poem, Because I Could Not Stop For Death877 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmily Dickinson is known for writing poems that relate to death and dying, and the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Because I could not stop for deathÃ¢â¬ is no exception. This is a narrative poem that illustrates the passage from life to death as a carriage ride through a quiet town. In this particular poem, the speaker has already passed away and is remembering what seems to be a fond memory, however that is not revealed till the final stanza. There are only two characters, The speaker and Death. The speaker is a lady whoRead MoreHer Kind By Anne Sexton943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe poem Her Kind by Anne Sexton is a story regarding the past. The narrator is explaining significant dark moments in her life. She briefly explains who she has been in her past life, which is structured into three stanzas. First, she depicts herself as a lonely witch, then a misunderstood cavewomen and lastly a victimized villager. However the most important characteristic of the speaker is that she is a woman and that is not something she is ashamed of, as she makes it clear in the last sentenceRead MoreEssay about Easter Wings1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The poem quot;Easter Wingsquot; by George Herbert is a poem full of deep imagery not only in its words but also in the visual structure of the stanzas. In HerbertÃ¢â¬â¢s poem why does he use a shape poem? Because he wanted this poem to have many different levels and meanings. Herbert also used huge amounts of mental imagery so that the reader can find new truths and meanings each time he or she reads it. The poem tells of the poets desire to fly with Christ as a result of Jesus sacrificeRead MoreImagery Of Women By Adrienne Rich1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesher use of political issues in her poems. She considers herself a socialist because Ã¢â¬Å"socialism represents moral values Ã¢â¬â the dignity and human rights of all citizensÃ¢â¬ (Daily News). In one of her poems, Ã¢â¬Å"Necessities of life,Ã¢â¬ Rich focused on death. Adrienne Rich got a negative reaction to her earlier poem Ã¢â¬Å"Snapshots of a Daughter-in-LawÃ¢â¬ which was her first overly feminist poem (Marilyn Hacker) and thought she had failed, so she focused on death in her next poem Ã¢â¬Å"as a sign of how erased she felt whenRead MoreA Comparison of The Poplar Field by William Cowper and Binsey Poplars Felled 1879 by Gerard Manley Hopkins897 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnoticeable is that both the poems are about a group of trees alongside a river. The other general similarity between the poems is that they are then later cut down and so the writers are now deprived of their enjoyment in the cool colonnade. However there are many differences between the poems. Firstly we notice that Hopkins uses far more complex rhyming schemes to capture the reader. He uses an erratic rhyming scheme and irregular stanzas. The rhyming scheme thatRead MoreThe Metaphysical Conceit in Donnes Poems1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Metaphysical Conceit DonneÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems Ã¢â¬Å"The FleaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A ValedictionÃ¢â¬ are poems by John Donne that were written in the 17th Century. These poems incorporate the fundamental of something called a metaphysical conceit. Interesting though, both poems use the metaphysical conceit to tell a story about two very opposite situation between two Ã¢â¬Å"partnersÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The FleaÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ metaphysical conceit is stretched along a lustful, passionate, relationship between two individuals. Ã¢â¬Å"A ValedictionÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ metaphysical conceitRead MoreEssay on John Keats To Autumn1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJohn Keats To Autumn Life is a beautiful thing that should not be wasted. Life must be lived without warning; it is not to be taken for granted. We will never fully understand life, not even in a million years. The theme of John Keats To Autumn is to enjoy life, even as you grow old and it begins to move away from you. He spreads his message through the time frame, imagery, and diction of the stanzas. To begin with, the time frame of the stanzas begins to prove the theme. By itselfRead More Kenneth FearingÃ¢â¬â¢s Dirge Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrecognition. The dirge is not just written for anyone, but for those deserving of glorification, who survive in the memories of the living as testaments to the greater capacities of humankind. It is against this traditional definition that Kenneth FearingÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬Å"DirgeÃ¢â¬ , is working, not only as an overt commentary on the social, cultural, and political factors surrounding the destabilization of 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s America but also as an abstraction of the prevalent views of reality: the dehumanization of the human. Fearing
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Ted Bundy his Killings as Part of the Control Theory Ted Bundy was a serial killer in the 1970s, in Florida. He grew up in normal Christian loving home with five brothers and sisters. There was no drinking, drug use, or any such things round the house. Growing up Ted considered himself a Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ kid. As Ted grew into his teens, he started having desirers of something more. Ted felt something was missing. He had a yearning for a release. Ted soon found his relief in store market porn, which served already to demonstrate his lack of ability to control his drive for deviance. As Ted aged, he found that magazine centerfolds helped him sooth his desire but he needed more. Ted progressed to movies, but his yearning needed more fuel. As the desires progressed he added violence to the print and movie porn. Ted still needed more. He needed to have his desired fulfilled. Only two of the seven girls was identified and revealed to be Janice Ott and Denise Naslund who both disappeared on the same day, for both these girls there were eye witnesses stating they say them with a man in a plaster cast who drove a VW beetle. During the months of October and November Bundy took another four victims when he moved over to Utah, one of those victims being the local police chiefÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. It was the Utah police that noticed that these crimes were very similar to the ones that had occurred in Washington, and sought assistance from the Washington police. It was BundyÃ¢â¬â¢s partner of five years Meg Anders that recognised the description and called the police saying she thinks the killer might be her husband but because of BundyÃ¢â¬â¢s charm they disregarded him as a potential suspect. On 8th November 1974 Bundy attempted to abduct a girl of the name Carol DaRonch that gave the police the break they needed as Carol had managed to escape her fate. On the same night though Debby Kent was not so fortunate being abducted and killed the same night. Caryn Campbell was the next victim to be identified on the 12th January 1975 succumbing to the vicious killing of Bundy. Police were starting to see that the Taylor Mountains was a favoured spot for Bundy for the dumping of the bodies. Despite though having found the desired dumping place police of all four states were no closer to catching Bundy then they were before. It was on 16th August 1975 that Bundy was picked up after a short chase in Salt Lake City after a police recognised the VX beetle. It was when the vehicle was searched and they uncovered handcuffs, a ski mask and a crowbar that they were able to arrest Bundy. Carol DaRonch was able to pick Bundy out of a line up and police were sure then that have caught the serial killer. A full scale investigation was set against Bundy where Meg Anders was able to assist the police; however Bundy continued to plead his innocence, although police at the time had evidence tying him to the Taylor Mountains area they were not able to tie him to all the murders that were found to be up there. Theories There are a few theories which can be applied to Ted Bundy to link together key events in his life to his offending behaviour. The first theory that will be drawn upon is the psychodynamic or hydraulic model, this theory believes that all humans if not managed properly or held in check will be prone to aggressive impulses and therefore are more likely to commit violent crimes. Sigmund Freud studied this model and came to believe that humans are born with this aggression and that it can build up during growth and if not dissipated or drained it can reach dangerous levels and hence an outburst or aggression of different types. Then there is the modelling theory, which was created by Albert Bandura. Bandura identifies three types of modelling theories being family members, members of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s subculture and symbolic models provided by the mass media. The last model is the model that would fit best with Ted Bundy. The mass media which can include television, movies, magazines, newspapers and books are all types of symbolic models, with things such as the internet and video games advancing more and more every day. With growing children watching television more and more often, it offers to them hundreds of potentially powerful aggressive and violent models, these can range from what looks like the innocent cartoons all the way up to x rated cable movies that children have easy access to, deeming them model the behaviour they have seen and witnessed and the media no telling that it is wrong to model these types of behaviours (Barton Bartol, 2001). Both these theories can be tied into very critical events happened during his life. The hydraulic or psychodynamic model can be seen when he goes through the break up with Stephanie Brooks and then later that year he found out about his true parentage, which would have created a lot of pent up anger inside him and instead of talking to someone about it he just threw himself into work and university, and we can see this pent up frustration later when he again meets up with Stephanie and starts a relationship with her and then breaks it off with no warning just as she had done with him, giving him the revenge he wanted. Then there is the modelling theory which can be linked with his addiction to hard core pornography. Ted says in an interview with James Dobson Ã¢â¬Å"Before we go any further, it is important to me that people believe what I am saying. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not blaming pornography. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not saying it caused me to go out and do certain things. I take full responsibility for all the things I have done. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the question here. The issue is how this kind of literature contributed and helped mould and shape the kinds of violent behavioursÃ¢â¬ (Dobson, 1995). So although the pornography wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the main cause of Ted BundyÃ¢â¬â¢s offences, he does believe that it certainly fuelled him and as he said it moulded and shaped the crimes which he committed. Conclusion In conclusion through this case study it is believed that the two theories being hydraulic and psychodynamic model and the modelling theory can be directly tied to key aspects in Ted BundyÃ¢â¬â¢s life which could have contributed to him offending. It is believed that his addiction to hard core pornography was a key issue and although is not the primary reason he started offending it was a key mould in which fuelled his offending. There was also the break up and the finding out of his true parentage that would have caused very mixed emotions within Ted Bundy which he was not able to express and because bottled up inside of him. It was his intelligence and his charm that put police off him for so many years and was never arrested, but only to his own errors that he was eventually caught and convicted, which ultimately lead to his execution by electric chair on 24th January 1989 at 7. 00am. References Allhoff, F. (2010).
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Language policy and planning in South Africa must be seen within the context of the countrys sociolinguistic complexity and the relationship between language and a number of serious problems in the country. South Africas sociolinguistic complexity is a function of a number of factors: 1) a multiplicity of languages and cultures; 2) the overlapping demographical and geographical distribution of the countrys major languages; and 3) the politicization of these languages and cultures due to both the colonial past and the policy of apartheid, and the differentiated linguistic manifestation of their politicization (Webb,1994). South Africa is one of the few countries in the world, and the only country in Africa, which has seen, during the 20th Century, the development of a language from one which had no governmental recognition, and existed largely in spoken form, to one in which substantial parts of the government, the national economy, and higher education were run. We will write a custom essay sample on Language planning in south africa or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The population of South Africa is not only multiracial but it is also multilingual. It is estimated that about 25 languages are spoken within South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s borders (Mesthrei, 2006). Historical Background In 1924, Afrikaans, a relatively new, hybridized language in use for only about eight years at the time, became one of the official languages of South Africa. Prior to 1924, English was the only official language in South Africa. In 1948, the infamous policy of apartheid became the law of the land in South Africa (De Kadt, 2006). The apartheid ideology called for the division of South Africas people according to their racial/ ethnic group affiliation and geographic residence. As South Africans were increasingly and systematically separated from each other, the apartheid-based idea of nationalism based on language was also promoted. By stressing language and cultural differences among the nations Black population, which includes members of African ethnic groups, persons of mixed race (Coloreds), and immigrants from India, and physically segregating them on the basis of race/ethnicity, the apartheid regime encouraged tribalism and petty factional conflicts. Prior to the 1994 elections, the language of instruction in South Africas schools for English, Afrikaner, Colored, and Indian students was either English or Afrikaans (the two former official languages), with the other official language studied as a subject. African students, however, were instructed in their home or ethnic African languages for the first four years and then allowed to switch to either English or Afrikaans. Of the two, English was almost always the preferred language. In 1976, the South African government passed a ruling to make Afrikaans the second language of instruction in the African schools (De Kadt, 2006). Seventy years after the language of Afrikaans was first granted official status (in 1924), South Africa set off on another unique linguistic journey. This time, in 1994, the country became the location of an effort to develop, simultaneously, nine indigenous African languages, granting all nine, along with English and Afrikaans, equal status (that is, official language status) and proclaiming that education and governmental documentation would be available in all. Those nine indigenous languages include Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Tswana, South Sotho, Tsonga, Swati, Venda and Ndebele. These were chosen because the majority of South Africans, probably more than 98%, use one of these languages as their home language or first language. Currently, English is the most visible and audible language at governmental functions, political rallies, administration, and the upper echelons of business and education. On the other hand, Afrikaans and African languages are very much alive on individual radio stations, in music, some newspapers (chiefly Afrikaans, Zulu, and Xhosa), primary education, and, to a lesser extent, on television (Mesthrei, 2006). I feel that the policy of making 9 languages the official languages of South Africa would progress very slowly as it is faced by several issues. Firstly, the cost and complexity of developing nine languages at once far outscales the costs and difficulties faced by the government in 1924 when making Afrikaans one of the official languages. For example, translation of all the government documents, forms and circulars to 11 official languages is an enormous burden that can barely be carried. Also, there is a great difference between the case of Afrikaans and that of the 9 indigenous languages. The political pressures on the government were very different between both cases. In the historical case (of Afrikaans), the governmental recognition of the language was driven by the existence of a politically significant language community. Whereas, in case of the 9 indigenous languages, it was driven by a demand for equality rather than a demand for language development. The political insignificance of these language communities, I believe, is what inhibits the development of the 9 indigenous languages to the level of English and Afrikaans.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Od vs Hr Essay Ã¢â¬Å"We are witnessing and participating in an unprecedented dissolution of the boundaries of the field of organization development. In organizations around the world, the HR function is monopolizing the OD function at an unprecedented pace, which is limiting our reach, blunting our effectiveness, and compromising our role. Ã¢â¬ OD and HR Do We Want the Lady or the Tiger? By Matt Minahan Ding. Ding. Ding. OK, timeÃ¢â¬â¢s up. Time to decide. Will it be door number one, or door number two? The lady or the tiger? In Frank StocktonÃ¢â¬â¢s allegory (1882), a prisoner is ordered to choose between two closed doors. Behind one is a woman whom he must marry sight unseen and live with for the rest of his life; behind the other is the tiger which would surely eat him alive. Without knowing exactly what is behind which door, how is one to choose? And, which does one really prefer? Like the mythical prisoner, the field of OD has been standing in front of two doors for too long, putting off the choice between them. One door would leave the OD function embedded within HR; the other would get OD out to stand independently on its own two feet in the organization. We will write a custom essay sample on Od vs Hr specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Od vs Hr specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Od vs Hr specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The field of OD has been putting off this decision for too longÃ¢â¬âsince its inception, in factÃ¢â¬âand it is time for us to make the decision. Well into our mid-40s as a field, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t really blame all of this mess on our forebears, because frankly weÃ¢â¬â¢re dealing with these choices just as badly as they did when the field was first founded. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re still standing looking at the same two doors between which our OD forebears could not decide. Long History, Deep Roots This question about whether OD should be part of HR or should stand on its own goes back to the founding of our field. What became organization development had its roots in the training and development function, where the T group was the primary intervention. At a panel of the founders of OD at the 2009 Academy of Management conference in Chicago, almost every one of them, to a man, said that they were trained as writers or sociologists or engineers, but attended an NTL Institute T group where their lives changed. (Several also lamented that they were all white men in the field at that time, and on that panel at AoM. Following their NTL experiences, they tried to bring these insights they had obtained into their organizations via the training function. By the late 1960s, just a few years after the field was founded by about a dozen internal training and development people at NTLÃ¢â¬â¢s summer home in Bethel, Maine, the theory was, Ã¢â¬Å"letÃ¢â¬â¢s transform the way managers think about themselves and the ways they relate to people and solve problems, and once weÃ¢â¬â¢ve done that, we can send them back home to transform their own organizationsÃ¢â¬ (Porras Bradford, 2004). Evidently, there were some who said that the OD function should stand on its own and be independent of other influence (Burke, 2004). Others, however, were concerned that the field of OD was too new and unknown and should reside in the personnel or training function, as advocated by Shel Davis of TRW Systems, Sy Levy from Pillsbury, Herb Shepard formerly of Esso, Dick Beckard, and others. Their belief was that Ã¢â¬Å"OD at the time was too new, too ephemeral, and too suspect to survive on its own in the organization . . . Early on, then, two models or scenarios OD and HR: Do We Want the Lady or the Tiger? 17 about the place of OD within the organization were debated regarding the wisdom of such a placementÃ¢â¬ (Burke, 2004). Theory Versus Fact The vast majority of the central thinkers, writers, and scholars in our field today (Cummings Worley, 2005; Marshak, 2009; Feyerherm Worley, 2009; Rothwell, et al. , 2009) write as if OD is a separate and distinct field of practice, but the facts on the ground tell a different story. We are witnessing and participating in an unprecedented dissolution of the boundaries of the field of organization development. In organizations around the world, the HR function is monopolizing the OD function at an unprecedented pace, which is limiting our reach, blunting our effectiveness, and compromising our role. As a field, we are behaving as if there is nothing we can do about it; it is as if we are watching ourselves in an automobile crash in slow motion, worried and concerned at what we see, and yet unable to find the brakes or grab the steering wheel to avert the collision and all of the collateral damage. Maybe the founders of the field were right that OD was too new and too fragile to stand on its own. But they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t count on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening now in the field of HR. The Ascendancy of HR Over the past 15 years, we have seen better and better leadership of the HR function, with several universities now offering MastersÃ¢â¬â¢ degrees in HRM and HRD and several MBA degrees with an HR concentration. The result has been a generation of stronger, more strategic HR managers who have achieved a seat at the table and are trusted advisors at the top of organizations. Many managers at the top of the HR function are getting better by the year about understanding the dynamics of the organizations in which they serve. Increasingly, they can speak the language of the board room, and are not afraid to undertake even major organization change projects. This new generation of HR leaders clearly understands that people and money are the powers that run organizations; and when the system can provide enough of the latter, their job is to get just enough of it into the hands of the former to get the job done. And then return the rest to stakeholders. And to keep the organization out of court. In these regards, they are notably different from the generation of HR managers and VPs that preceded them, when there was no professional training for HR managers and when these posts often went to the VP who was due to retire next. The evolution of the training function also has had an impact. Ever increasing pressures to reduce costs have forced the training function to get smart about impact evaluation. KirkpatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) four levels have forced the training function to look beyond end-of-session Ã¢â¬Å"smile sheetsÃ¢â¬ to defend their budgets and make the case that training is a valuable investment. The result has been that training functions are now requiring training managers who have the skills to collect data, analyze it, and think systemically about what to do with it. Sounds familiar, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? If you needed The days of HR staff being hired principally because they were people persons with good listening skills are gone. The trend toward activity based costing (ABC) is now showing the true cost of overhead functions such as HR, and HR is responding by making itself more relevant to the business of the organization. Many HR staff are now called business partners, often reflecting an aspirational goal, but quite distant from the actual reality of their skills on the ground. With this smarter, more strategic generation of HR managers comes the instinct and desire to have at hand one of the most powerful levers for organizational change and renewal, the OD function. Thus the trend of OD roles and functions being acquired by HR. And, to be clear, in merger and acquisition terms, these are not mergers of equals; they are straight up acquisitions of the OD function by HR. Another factor has been the pressure on HR functions to be relevant to the business of the organization. The days of HR staff being hired principally because they were people persons with good listening skills are gone. The trend toward activity based costing (ABC) is now showing the true cost of overhead functions such as HR, and HR is responding by making itself more relevant to the business of the organization. Many HR staff are now called business partners, often reflecting an aspirational goal, but quite distant from the actual reality of their skills on the ground. someone to do that, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you be looking for a good OD person? Often desperate to meet their utilization goals, the training function is very happy to let managers continue to believe that training is the answer to every problem, a kind of panacea for whatever ails. Leaders and employees alike seem to rely on training as the answer, believing perhaps that with the right education they can deliver what the business needs. That is certainly an easier solution to accept than facing OD issues related to how people, teams, and departments relate and connect with one another, how business processes work, and how all connect with and work toward the strategic direction of the organization. So, it is no wonder that smart HR leaders are looking to candidates trained and educated in OD to take on these business partner and training leadership roles, resulting in even more blurring of the lines between OD and HR. 18 OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 42 No. 4 2010 Differences Are Real, and Important By now, this authorÃ¢â¬â¢s biases are probably clear: there are important differences between the OD and HR functions; and as these roles collapse and the differences disappear, the field of OD is losing its unique position in the organization and its effectiveness overall. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re behaving as a field as if we should be living in a both/and world around this, when the truth is exactly the opposite. Many in OD struggle to find and hold boundaries that separate people and things. We spend our entire time helping our clients make better connections between each other at all levelsÃ¢â¬âindividuals and pairs, cross unit collaboration, organizations working toward better partnerships, etc. But when it comes to OD and our HR cousins, we should be sharpening and better defining our boundaries, not blurring them, because the differences in our functions are real and important. The HR function has a legally mandated, regulatory role: to provide people to fill jobs, to reduce costs (for payroll, health care insurance, benefits, etc. ), and to keep the organization out of the courts and the press by ensuring compliance and avoiding claims of discrimination or harassment. People view HR as the people you go to with a problem that you want to make official. People feel that going to HR puts things in the record. They see HR as the enforcers or policemen. The OD function has a developmental mandate; in fact, our job is to increase the effectiveness of the organization and to maximize the potential of the human beings in the work force. We have theories, concepts, beliefs, and values through which we help our clients assure that there is alignment among strategy, structure, business process, and culture, while at the same time embedding human values such as honesty, respect, diversity, and voice. One model (Marshak, 2006) outlines three domains of knowledge for OD practitioners: Ã » understanding social systems, drawing on theories and ideas from the social sciences, including psychology, social Ã » psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, and others, consistent with OD values; understanding the hows and whys of change, including the bodies of knowledge that help explain how all levels of the systemÃ¢â¬âindividual, group, organizational, community, and even societies change; and understanding the role of the third p arty change agent, especially aiding the person in charge as well as the system itself to bring about the desired changes, requiring an understanding of the issues, politics, psychological processes related to being a third party in a change process. That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound much like the recruit, retain, train, and develop mandate of the HR function, does it? It is hard to imagine even the highest functioning HR departments being knowledgeable and skilled in all these areas. There are many in HR who look at the list of OD functions and say, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, we can do that! Ã¢â¬ And, on occasion, they may be right. But the philosophies of the two disciplines are starkly different, as are the theory bases, the world views, the core skills sets, and their roles within the organization. There is a built-in conflict between the role of OD consultant, coach or adviser with a developmental mandate working toward organizational effectiveness, versus the role of the HR practitioner whose core mandate is regulatory and enforcement. Can a good HR person advise on selected developmental matters, such as training strategies and needs assessments? Yes, as can a good OD person. But the conflict of interest for the HR staff shows up when the Action Research process of retreat planning and design requires them to interview staff about a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. What staff member in her right mind would say something critical of their manager to someone from HR, who is likely also to be involved in decisions about that managerÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion, pay, and even succession planning? Or their own? HR has its hands on too many of the organizational levers and has too many mandates centering around enforcement and control to ever be effective at drawing out of managers the truth about their insecurities, anxieties, and the shadow sides, that is so necessary to doing good work and being effective in doing OD. Troubling Examples These concerns arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just theoretical, either. Quick conversations with a handful of colleagues, both OD and HR, turn up some troubling examples. In a large multinational organization, The Different Functions Organization Development Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improve the effectiveness of the organization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maximize the potential of human beings and their contributions to the organization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Align strategy, structure, business processes, and behavior into an effective corporate culture Ã¢â¬ ¢ Model and foster humanistic values into the workplace Human Resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Manage employee attraction, retention, development, and performance management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop and manage programs for employee relations, staff wellÃ being, workforce planning, and workload management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ensure equity and diversity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduce labor costs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Avoid litigation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enforce corporate policies OD and HR: Do We Want the Lady or the Tiger? 19 the OD staff and external consultants were forced to follow the rules that govern the rest of the HR function around meeting with VPs and senior managers. The HR VP insisted that he attend every meeting that the HRÃ¢â¬âand OD! Ã¢â¬âstaff had with other VPs in the organization. Not just marketing or contracting meetings, but actual project meetings as well. He was unwilling to make an exception for the OD staff lest the HR staff get upset. Within weeks, his it was in Corporate Strategy along with the strategy and budget functions, where it had free reign of the organization and was in constant contact with the top leadership on strategy, structure, and corporate culture. It was later merged into the HR function. The results: the best organization design people in town left (with all of their embedded knowledge) rather than be reassigned to deliver management training programs. Then a succession of HR managers gradu- practitioner is, then anybody can hang out a shingle claiming he or she is an OD consultant. In fact, some years ago, there was an informal study of the members of the OD Network that found that almost one third of them had taken on the label or the role of OD consultant, with no previous education or training in the field. Not All Bad News To be clear, the field has shifted largely positively, over the past few decades, responding to some of the Ã¢â¬Å"red flagsÃ¢â¬ that Larry Greiner (1972) identified for OD, including: Ã » Putting individual behavior ahead of strategy, structure, process, and controls; Ã » Overemphasizing the informal at the expense of the formal organization, driving more for openness and trust to change the culture, often at the expense of efficiency, h ierarchy, and accountability; Ã » Driving open and trusting relationships as a normative model for change, without questioning the context or applicability in a given situation, and assuming that team building was always the preferred intervention; Ã » Putting process before task, enamored with the human dynamics of working together over getting the work done; and Ã » Treating the manager as just another stakeholder, relatively uninvolved in the planning and conduct of consultantled programs rather than the key stakeholder. Historically, the field has addressed many, if not all, of these red flags among strong and well-grounded practitioners. However, many of them are still quite evident in HR people who are trying to do OD today. The Right Answer Reflecting on the various options for organizing and structuring the OD function and constructing its relationship with HR, the optimum solution is to establish In a large financial institution, the OD function thrived when it was part of the IT function where it designed and facilitated large business process simplification projects. It had its best years when it was in Corporate Strategy along with the strategy and budget functions, where it had free reign of the organization and was in constant contact with the top leadership on strategy, structure, and corporate culture. It was later merged into the HR function. The results: the best organization design people in town left (with all of their embedded knowledge) rather than be reassigned to deliver management training programs. schedule became a huge onstraint on the work of the OD function because consultants (internal and external) could not get into his calendar to meet with their clients. In a science-based organization the OD function was fully financially self-sufficient, recovering the costs and a bit of an Ã¢â¬Å"upchargeÃ¢â¬ from its internal clients. Other HR managers got res entful of this chargeback mechanism. They forced the manager of the OD program to stop recouping her costs, which effectively killed the OD function because it had no free-standing budget of its own. In a university, a very strong and capable OD function has been merged and renamed Learning and OD, resulting in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s best OD talent being diverted into managing the training program for the university. In a large financial institution, the OD function thrived when it was part of the IT function where it designed and facilitated large business process simplification projects. It had its best years when ally reduced the OD function to delivering two day team building retreats, and a cadre of dozens of internal and external consultants has been whittled down to less than 10. In one knowledge -based organization we know, the OD person is required to have the HR person present during all contracting and data collection meetings. Clients are now creatively working around the requirement by calling the OD staff directly on their cell phones after hours to discuss matters that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t say in front of the HR people, who are not trusted in that system. No Boundaries, No Standards What Bradford and Burke (2004) said about the lack of standards in the field of OD applies equally well to the lack of boundaries with the HR function. Ã¢â¬Å"When there is lack of clarity as to the boundaries of the field and corresponding confusion about what the appropriate role of an OD 20 OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 42 No. 4 2010 the OD function independently. Ideally, it would have a blended mandate and funding, charging back for local unit-specific work, and centrally funded for organization-wide efforts. There are instances when OD should be working in partnership with the HR function, specialists on one discipline speaking with and working closely with specialists of the other discipline. There are nstances when the HR function would be the OD functionÃ¢â¬â¢s client; and there are instances when the OD and HR functions ought not to be working together at all, such as when there are conflicts of interest or large scale organization strategy or design pr ojects not ready for implementation. There are disadvantages to being freestanding and independent within the organization. The OD function may become vulnerable to exposure, scrutiny, and politics. Some OD people canÃ¢â¬â¢t play in the C-suite (Burke, 2004). The function would have to earn its stripes and compete for money and mandate with other functions in strategic planning, financial management, budget, and yes, even HR. But the upsides of organizational independence are quite significant, and are evident now where strong OD departments are standing on their own. The OD function becomes central to the business of the organization, influencing strategy, mergers and acquisitions, divestitures, restructuring, etc. It works upstream, providing early input on the development of plans and processes, able to bring a systemic perspective and OD values to actions that previously had been made primarily on financial grounds alone. It is present and able to influence the setting of the agenda, not just the implementation of it. But How to Get There? It is no longer enough just to be good at process. To be able to stand independently in organizations, free of the cover and support of the HR function, OD practitioners need to: Ã » Know the major environmental, regulatory, and financial drivers of the organization; Ã » Ã » Ã » Ã » Know, be known by, and trusted by the top leadership of the organization; Know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s involved in evaluating, deciding, and implementing mergers and acquisitions, especially around blending corporate cultures and business processes; Be effective in working across cultures, in global environments, and especially today, virtually; and Be attuned to the organizational politics within the organization and within its governance structures. (Greiner Cummings, 2004) Integrating sustainability and globalization into the world of OD brings another set of challenges. To play effectively as a free standing function, free of support from HR, OD practitioners need: Ã » New and better ideas for progress, guided by diversity, development, and sustainability; Ã » To understand and be effective at intervening in economic systems, balancing productivity with innovation, sustainability, and diversity; socially constructed and negotiated (Bushe Marshak, 2008). As the boundaries of the field have expanded over the past 15 years to include more systemic perspectives, there are new challenges for how to educate new OD professionals (Minahan Farquhar, 2008). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a tall order for a field that has prided itself historically on being apolitical, focusing on the individual, following the lead of the client, ambivalent about asserting ourselves in leadership roles within our client systems, and seeing ourselves as a bit subversive in being countercultural. There is some good news here, however. For the past 9 months, many of the academic directors of OD programs around the world have been carrying on a conversation sponsored by the OD Network and the OD and Change Division of the Academy of Management about the knowledge areas that are central to the field of OD and to which a solid OD program would want to commit. The criteria are still very much under development, but there is strong agree- Just as itÃ¢â¬â¢s tempting to blame our biological parents for our least attractive qualities, it is easy also to blame the founders of our field for leaving us stuck in this bi-polar state. Yes, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve dealt us this hand, but weÃ¢â¬â¢re the ones playing it now. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve been playing small ball, under the cover of the HR function and limited by our own ambivalence about power. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to step forward, and pick a door. To model how human and cultural dignity and diversity are valued in their own right; and To make sure that the ecology has standing in all decisi ons. (Feyerherm Worley, 2008) ment around several, including the history and evolution of the field, its values base, the use of self, systems thinking, organization design science, theories and models for change, leading the consulting process, organizational inquiry and research, organizational assessment, designing and choosing appropriate interventions, facilitation and process consultation at all levels, organizational and global culture, diversity and inclusion, process improvement methods, and organizational acumen and mastery. As the work progresses, there will Ã » In social constructionist terms, the independent OD function of the future will also be influenced by the new sciences and postmodern thought. It will intervene on the organization as a meaning-making system, in which reality is acknowledged to be OD and HR: Do We Want the Lady or the Tiger? 21 be further discussions and consultations with professional organizations, scholars, and practitioners. Just as itÃ¢â¬â¢s tempting to blame our biological parents for our least attractive qualities, it is easy also to blame the founders of our field for leaving us stuck in this bi-polar state. Yes, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve dealt us this hand, but weÃ¢â¬â¢re the ones playing it now. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve been playing small ball, under the cover of the HR function and limited by our own ambivalence about power. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to step forward, and pick a door. It may the lady. It may the tiger. But whichever way it turns out, we serve the field, our organizations, our HR colleagues, and ourselves by establishing the OD function independently, declaring our boundaries, and then working together across them, but separately. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s more to discuss on this topic. Join Matt and others in this conversation at http://mattminahan. blogspot. com.